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Escape from Modern Rationality

Humans are social animals that always confront social clashes which sometimes lead them to improve but sometimes lead them to pursue in darkness; both outputs are based on the way, members of a society react upon matters.

Afghanistan has been opposing modern educational, political and social systems since ancient times. In schools, humans improve their proficiencies but schools were considered as profane phenomenon among us for a long time since schools are the resultant of modernity. The requirements of modern educational system don’t carry any ethnic and gender borders; men and women with equal rights deserve to have their hungry minds fed but we, for the first time denied the ideas of building schools and teaching both males and females equally in Amir Habibullah Khan’s period.

Modern communities have treated modern implements rationally and have gained great changes and civilizations but we are witnessing ignorance in Afghanistan because we haven’t treated modern implements rationally and have denied the modern political and social systems as once upon a time when the legislation of codified laws were introduced, spiritual leaders had held Holy Quran in one hand and the constitution in other and were asking people if they accepted the Quran or the constitution whilst in many Islamic countries both are admitted.

Social life is a continuous field of varieties and every change is a steady circuit which doesn’t end and makes us unable to deny it. For having a prosperous and advanced life, the change of circumstances’ status is a must and this is clear that Afghanistan has always stood against these changes, which has caused us to have such crises.

We need to know four significant theories for the recognition of the reasons of resistances like opposing modern systems and disputing the change of circumstances’ status in our community.

• Culture (First theory):
We have extraordinary dealing with culture because it’s one of most significant phrases in our daily life.

• Readjustment and adaption with environments (Second theory):
The relation between adaption and culture is that culture provides us the tools for adaption with both natural and social environments. For existence and survival we need to conform to both environments and this is not possible to live in a society and don’t be compatible with its language, customs, ideals and goals.

As an example, in Islamic societies, there are some obligations that members of communities should adopt for being able to live a better life among people such as having particular covering which is called “Hijab” or dealing with other Islamic commitments. So, we realize that life gets promoted stepwise to the extent we accommodate with both environments.

For example, it’s clear that we can’t extract, pull out food and other essentials of life and haven’t been able to use of our natural surroundings. Hence, we are poor since our minds are hungry and that we haven’t accorded with the environment, that’s why members of an unwise society always pursue poor and pathetic life like us.

Adaption with natural environment is clear but adaption with social environment needs to be focused on, social environment is an arena of conflict, collision and contrasts which are ensued of contradictory interests; each individual as a living creature has aims which can be in opposition with aims of other individuals in a society. Therefore, we need normative and legal systems for disposal of conflicts and to prohibit them causing war all against all and let us live comfortably in a society.

As told before that culture provides us the tools for adaption like technologies, media and industrial instruments to adapt with natural environment and provides us language, customs, ideals, goals, normative and legal operating systems to adapt with social environment. It’s true that all societies have goals and seek to reach them and goals need instruments to be achieved, we should choose the most proper instruments for which we need to obey the characteristics of rationality.

Right away we get a result of all above mentioned details about resistance that we have been opposing the change of adaptive patterns, for example by the passage of time the traditional ways of farming were changed to industrial tools in agriculture for having better results and first world countries chose industrial tools for agriculture for obtaining bread and butter but we have always been choosing traditional ways for farming, there is no doubt that they have had better livelihood than us since the chosen tools were based on features of rationality.

Or as an example in traditional ways in past, when a person committed crime so all members of the tribe were punished or that the daughter of the criminal’s family was handed over the victim’s family, these were not done because of whims, they were sorts of adaption with social environment for diminishing frictions but in other side if we use modern legal and judicial systems to solve the same case, so, of course we will have intellectual outcomes.

• Rationality (Third theory):
Now we realize that in journey along the life, humans have always changed the ways of adaption with both natural and social environments, these changes are whether led of inevitability or that modern ways are more efficient than our past irrational traditional ways. Hereof we get into the third topic called rationality.

This is obvious that rationality is one of the modern world’s manifestations, means that modern and industrial society or modern world is recognized on the concept of rationality. The simplest meaning of rationality is that we should choose the equipments for gaining our goals which are based on three characteristics:

1. We have got to choose the tools which have more profits and fewer losses means that we had better not pick out the tools which have more losses and fewer profits.

2. The second characteristic of rationality is that we have to opt the tools which are efficient means that our tools should be able to meet our goals and ideals altogether.

As an example historic social experiences have proved that imperial and royal political systems aren’t suitable tools for meeting our political purposes and that’s why people suggested and preferred democratic system rather to imperial system, since democracy has fewer detriments and is more efficient in distribution of power and in controlling of society, thus democratic system is better than any other political system.

3. The third characteristic of rationality is that we should choose the path which holds the lowest cost. For instance, treating the murder case by handing over the daughter to the victim’s family holds highest moral costs. Or using tools for construction of a building, it seems quite irrational to choose the tools which hold higher costs when we already have low costing tools.

Thus, modification of ways for facing up the terms means that mankind’s ways have always redirected to rationality for adaption with environments since beginning till now, entails that we have tried to select the tools for adaption with both environments which have more profits and fewer losses, which are efficient and which hold the lowest costs.

Therefore we should admit that change and revision in selections is a must in life and the difference that we and modern world have is only and only in selections; their selections have been rational which has resulted them to have more powerful compatibility with natural and social environments than us, thus they have been able to create a peaceful and humanitarian social environment and have been able to use of nature and provide livelihood to all members of their society.

So far, we have mentioned three main issues which are rationality, adaption and culture which have close relations; adaption and compatibility are the significant things for survival of life and the tools for adjustment are provided by culture but sometimes we select the tools that have three characteristics of rationality therefore it is called a rational handling and sometimes we select the tools which aren’t based on the rationality and hence, it is called an irrational deal.

• Past traditions called “Sonnat” in Dari (Fourth theory):
Right away, some might ask that “those who don’t deal rationally so, how do they deal?” For this we need to know the fourth theory or concept which is “past traditions” or “Sonnat”. Here we don’t mean religious Sonnat; we mean the customs which have passed on from generation to generation.

The people who treat new implements irrationally are those who give priority to “past traditions” and always compare modern models if they are meeting with their past traditions. As when democracy was introduced, so modern world asked if democratic system had more profits and fewer losses, was efficient and had low cost than imperial system, but the first question we asked was that if democracy met our tribal traditions or not. And there is no doubt that you don’t find out phrases like Christian democracy, evangelical democracy or catholic democracy in modern world societies, but in our society we witness existence of “Islamic democracy” discussions which clearly shows that “does the democratic system match our past tribal traditions or not?” If yes we accept and if not so we deny though if they have the characteristics of rationality too.

Instantly, we understand that tribal traditions have invariably caused us to oppose rationality, the modern world and its systems.
Why is “Loya Jirga” an acceptable power distributive tool in our government which is proved one of the most backward and decadent symbol? Why do people suggest playing lottery on distribution of power in government while our society is facing heavy political crises? Why?
Because the concept of “Loya Jirga” was highly compatible with our ancestors’ social and historic customs in past and we didn’t analyze it when it was gifted to us and by the passage of time the environments caused us to be entirely compatible with this concept.

Do you think customs and traditions are of our use which can’t inhibit poverty, ignorance, tyranny, contrast, tribal and social conflicts in our society? What is the use of such customs? Besides this, you know that we are concerned of our customs and traditions rather than poverty, ignorance and inequality.

In our society “Afghani honor” is considered not the case of interaction with modern world; group of Afghans were asked of their reputation by Iranians, Afghans had replied that (افغان هستیم! الحمدالله، سواد نداریم ولی غیرت داریم). Which “Afghani honor” are they talking about? Afghans have been proved the history’s faintest cowards in social experiments. What honor? Owners of the country who even can’t build half meter road for themselves, 20% to 30% of residents who are displaced in other countries and work as laborers for others, those who lean on foreign donations and say that they can’t build classes for sons and daughters of the society because they aren’t donated, do you think the owners of that society have honor? The phrase “Afghani honor” is nothing more than a junk, trash, and rubbish.

Societies have honor that broke the shelters of sky and galaxies, those who led and improved unprecedented and unparallel education and civilizations, those who established modern political systems and those who led peaceful living environment for their people.

We should admit openly that we are Afghan and neither have literacy nor honor, so, in selection of tools for adaption first of all we try to relieve our tribal traditions, those customs which have led nothing except stupor, misery, nonsense and rot in our society. Thus, the ways and tools which we have always selected have been based on past tribal traditions and this has caused us to run away of rationality.

Reference:
Dr. Mohammad Jawad Sultani’s speech in a seminar.

Why are women oppressed in Islamic countries?

There is little point in discussing how well or badly so called ‘Islamic countries’ are living up to the teachings of Islam, or why. First it is necessary to clear up misunderstandings of what those teachings are.
Women are equal to men in the sight of God but they have in some respects different roles in life to men because of their different natures.
They differ psychologically, physiologically, and biologically from men. This makes them more suitable than men for certain responsibilities and less suitable than men for others.
Islam recognises these differences.
Oppression of women is the result of removing their rights. Islam gives men & women rights that are different in some aspects to those they have in the western world. The principle difference in the way these rights came about is also important. In the West rights became part of the law only after women had been through great political struggles and also partly due to the necessity of women working in factories during wars. It is possible that this will be reversed in the future. In Islam, rights were given ‘out of the blue’ by God through revelation. They cannot be reversed by anyone’s decision. Most Muslims recognise the purity and validity of the Qur’anic laws even if they are not following them, but it may be necessary to struggle for a return to them from time to time. It is quite commonly agreed that all things in life which are worthwhile require some struggle.
There is considerable overlap of rights that now exist in the Western world and those which Muslim women have always had (at least in principle if not in practice).

The aims of Dr. R .Bashardost

The aims of Dr. R .Bashardost the Ex planning minister and parliament independent candidate of Kabul

1- Summoning of ministers for interrogation from their works results.
2- Non – existence confidence vote to lazy, non – professional and profiteer ministers.
3-Amputation of exorbitant salaries of foreign advisers, west ran and martial princes.
4- In crease of civilians and military staff’s salaries.
5- Increase of convinced salaries.
6- Cleaning of Governmental a demonstrations from allayed, in Justice and corruption.
7- Cleaning of national army and national police from non – professional members.
8- Construction of schools , religious schools, preparation of table , chair , book , scholarship , dormitory for students and higher education’s learners .
9- Construction of schools, religions schools, preparation of table, chair, book, scholarship, dormitory for students and higher education learners.
10- Preparation of abode malice available of work and educational possibilities for refugees.
11- Distribution of land for ones bales, Marty’s families Teachers, officials, refugees and deprived.
12- Obtaining of usurped lands of Governmental and personal again.
13- Trail of embezzlement public properties responsible.
14- Giving the first right to inner reconstruction’s companies and projects.
15- Dis-solving of economic criminal –N-G-O.
16- giving the first right in recruitment of Afghan workers and tradesmen.
17- serious making of dams reserve of water and watering of cultivation and generation of power.
18- Support strengthening of industries and internal productions.
19- Supporting of private sector for economic development .
20- Serious control of prices trues the health competition.
21- Expansion and development of economic, social and cultural symmetrical.
22- Demolishing of heavy direct and indirect taxes.
23- Survey, control and serious watching on the international community aids.
24- Close up the forgone prisons in Afghanistan.
25- Co-operation with international community in combat against terrorism and unsecurity.
26- Serious opposition with each kind of transaction with oppressors.
27- Forgiven policy appoint anent on the basis of national interests.
28- Immediate construction of equipped, modern clinic and hospitals.
29- Cleaning of Governmental administrations serum smugglers of narcotic materials and destroying of cultivation of poppy.
30- Immediate preparation of drinkable water and power.
31- Immediate reconstruction of roads, and public transportation.
32- Immediate programmed of canalize and regular cleanness of city from impurities.

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost – Afghanistan Presidential Candidate

Ramazan Bashardost

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost

قانون احوال شخصيه اهل تشیع: شوکت علی محمدی

من نيز مانند ديگر شهروندان متمدن هموطنم حق اظهار نظر در مورد قانون احوال شخصيه يا همان قانون مدني جامعه شيعه را براي خود محفوظ مي دانم! اما من نيز مانند اکثر قريب به اتفاق صاحب نظراني که حق نظر را محفوظ مي دانند و اظهار نظر کرده اند؛ لوح محفوظ اين يار نديده و فيل مولانا را نديده ام، جز تاريکي اقوال و موضع گيري هاي اين چنيني و آن چناني!

در مورد اين قانون طيف هاي گوناگوني اظهار نظر کرده اند؛

۱. منتقدان: منتقدان نيز به گروه هاي ريز تري تقسيم مي شوند؛

الف/1. گروهي که قانون را ديده و از ديد درون ديني نقد هايي بر آن وارد مي دانند مانند موسسه عالي کاتب.

ب/1. گروهي که قانون را نديده، اما با نگاه برون ديني و صرفا عقلاني به قضايا نگرسته و آن را ناقض حيثيت جهاني شيعيان مي دانند. اين گروه بدون در نظر داشت پيوست تدوين کنندگان به اردو گاه سياسي و ….نگران رويگرداني جامعه جهاني از شيعيان افغانستان که وجهه قابل قبولي تا کنون داشته اند؛ مي باشند.

ج/1. جماعتي که به دليل پيوست تدوين کنند گان اين قانون و به ويژه آقاي آيت الله محسني، با اين قانون مخالفند و مخالفت اروپاييان و امريکاييان را وسيله خرد کردن ايشان کرده اند.

د/1. جماعتي که گفتمان هويت سياسي را بر هويت مذهبي ترجيح مي دهند و پا گيري گفتمان و انديشه مذهب محور را موجب سوء استفاده عده اي غير هزاره از اين هويت و تضييع حقوق هزاره ها مي دانند. دليل اين گروه جدا انديشي اين اقليت هاي غير هزاره در مواقع خطر است که مسير شان را از هزاره ها جدا مي کنند.

ه/1. گروهي که چشم به گشايش بلاد فخيمه دارند و در صدد سوداي روشنفکري اند. اينان نه دغدغه مليتي و نه مذهبي دارند و نان خود مي پزند و………

و/1. خارجي ها: نظريات غربي ها در راه افتادن موج مخالفت با اين قانون، نقش مهمي داشته است. مباني انديشه غرب با اسلام تفاوت جوهري دارد. بسياري از آموزه هاي ديني ما براي آنان قابل درک و قابل قبول نيست؛ همان گونه بسياري از ارزش هاي جامعه غربي براي ما چنان است. پس غربي ها اين انتظار را نداشته باشند که ارزش هاي جامعه سکولار و اومانيست غربي در جامعه مسلمان و شديدا مذهبي افغانستان قابل پذيرش باشد. پس آزادي عقيده چه معنايي خواهد داشت! ارزشي غربي خود را به آن ملتزم مي دانند. قرار شنيدگي، عنوان تمکين به تجاوز به عنف در معادل انگليسي آن ترجمه شده که مشکلاتي پديد آورده است.

بسياري از ارزش هاي جامعه ما و غرب در تضاد همند مانند منزلت خانواده و مسؤوليت تربيتي و…اگر در آموزه اسلامي خروج زنان را در مواردي که حق شوهر ضايع مي شود؛ محدود کرده در مقابلش زن را از تأمين زندگي معاف داشته که در جامعه غربي خانواده به منزله «کوهبي تي شن» يا به قول ما به اندوالي تنزل داده است که زن به اندازه مرد باید مخارج زندگی را بپردازد. زن با معافیت از مخارج زندگی فرصت بیشتری برای پیشرفت و آزادی روانی بیشتری دارد تا به مسولیت اصلی او یعنی تربیت انسان که شان انبیاست بپردازد. در صورتي که عالمان روشن فکري مانند علامه فضل الله و…خروج زن را تنها در موردي خوف تضييع حقوق شوهر؛ منوط به اجازه شوهر دانسته است.

ادعاي مقايسه اين قانون با شريعت دشوار آفرين طالباني بي انصافي است. طالبان زنان را از تحصيل باز مي دارند و خروج و عبور و مرور زنان را بدون پليس (محارم) ممنوع مي دانند و …که در اين قانون و واقعيت جامعه شيعه هرگز چنين نيست.

موافقان:

1. اکثريت خاموش:

جامعه هزاره به دليل شيعه بودن و شيعه مسلمان شدن؛ همه مکانيسم هاي دفاعي خود را جهت حفظ هويت مذهبي فعال کرده بود! براي بقاي اين هويتي که در آغاز(سال36هجري به بعد که شنسب در حضور امام علي(ع) مسلمان شد و حکومت غور و غرجستان و مرو به غوريان هزاره واگذار شد) اقتدار سياسي و سعادت اخروي براي شان در پي داشته بود؛ هويت ملي خود را فدا کردند. هزاره هاي شيعه ماده131 قانون اساسي را احيا کننده حقوق پايمال شده شان مي دانند و اين قانون را نماد حضور برابر و انساني در کشور مي دانند. اکثريت خاموش، اين قانون را در اين مرحله اگر چه ناقص هم باشد نشان هويت شيعي خود مي دانند و با توجه به جو بي اعتمادي گذشته، تعديل زود هنگام آن را خطر جدي براي حذف خود مي شمارند.

2. عالمان برجسته ديني: اين قانون به وسيله عده اي از کار شناسان و با سوادان حوزوي تدوين شده و در شوراي علماي کابل تصويب شده و در اختيار وزير محترم عدليه که خود از کار شناسان حوزوي و نيز حقوقدان است قرار گرفت تا روند قانوني خود را طي کرد. عالمان برجسته جامعه ما مانند آيت الله العظمي محقق کابلي و  آيت الله محسني اين قانون را ديده و تأييد کرده اند. عالمان برزگواري مانند آيت الله العظمي فياض، صالحي ترکمني، تقدسي، صادقي پرواني، عرفاني يکاولنگي، و.. اين قانون را رد نکرده اند.

3. اکثريت نمايندگان شيعي پارلمان!

اما……

واقعيت آن است که ما اعتدال رواني نداريم! در موافقت ها و مخالفت ها راه افراط و تفريط را طي مي کنيم!

بر خي از جماعتي که مخالفت کرده اند، از سر دلسوزي است، اما نبايد آن را بوق و کرنا کنند که هر بي سواتي مانند من اظهار نظر کنند و قضايا پيچيده شود و احيانا وهني براي جامعه ما به شمار آيد. نخبگان جامعه راه هاي سالم تري را تمرين و جست و جو کنند. اين مسايل در محافل علمي بررسي شود.

اين مسأله، يک کار کاملا تخصصي است و بايد متخصصان اين فن، يعني فقیهان و عالمان طراز اول جامعه آن را بررسي علمي کنند.

واقعيت آن است که مبناي اين حقوق، نظريات مشهور علما است(اين اصطلاح فني علم فقه است) و آقاي محسني موافقت نکرده که نظريات خودش مبنا قرار گيرد! احتمالا او چنين روزهايي را پبش بيني مي کرده است. اگر چه صاحب نظران حوزوي مانند علامه فضل الله و …از بسياري از نظريات مشهور عبور کرده اند. واقعيت آن است که داشته­ی مورد اتفاق فقه ما همين است که آمده! اگر اشکالي هست در رکود اجتهاد حوزه ما است و تدوين کنندگان آن نظر سوء نداشته اند. ما اگر مخالف يک مسأله هستيم بايد آن را عالمانه نقد کنيم نه آن که جو جامعه التهاب زده را مکدر و تنش آلود کنيم.

مي شد و مي شود ادبيات بهتري در اين قانون استفاده کرد که چنين مشکلاتي پديد نيايد. ترسم آن است در اين مقطع، به جاي سرمه، چشم را کور کنيم که مباد! اميدوارم با حفظ حق نظر، دور انديش باشيم!

اصطلاح هزاره

خداوند خالق تمام مخلوقات کائنات میباشد. از میان این همه مخلوقات انسانان لقب اشرف المخلوقات را به خود گرفته اند، چون خودمختار و قادر به تفکروعمل میباشند.

خداوند در قرآن فرموده است: و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض

ترجمه: شما را بر زمین و آسمان مسلط ساختم.

و می فرماید: و نفخت فيد من روحی

ترجمه: ای انسان! من از روح خودم در تو دمیدم.

انسانان جانشینیان خدایند، هر صفتی که در خدا وجود دارد، در انسانان نیز وجود دارد ولی به شکلی محدود.

در جهان انسانان با نژادهای مختلف به شکلی جمعی دریک جای زندگی میکنند که  مطابق به محیط شان دارای فرهنگ، رسوم و رواجهای متفاوت میباشند و مترقی ترین آنان کسانی اند که به فکر فرهنگ، زبان، مردم و جامعه ای خود باشند.

در جهان ملتها و قبائل زیادی وجود دارند که یکی از محرومترین آنها ملت “هزاره” میباشد که به گفتهُ بعضی از محقیقین تقریبا ٌ 7000 سال  و به گفتهُ بعضی 2300  سال قبل در آسیای میانه زندگی میکردند که در دوره های زندگی آنان تمدن های بزرگ رخ داده اند اما در اثر تهاجم های اطرافیان شان قادر به بروز استعدادهای شان نشدند و فرهنگ و زبان شان پایمال شده و از هویت و شناخت خود دور بوده اند.

معلومات کافی در بارهُ هزازه ها و تاریخ آنان وجود ندارد، اگر وجود هم دارد، ناقص اند چون  محقیقین برای ثبوت نظریات شان کدام سند ندارند.

مثل ایکه قبلاً در باره ی دوره زندگی هزاره ها، تاریخی ذکر(7000 و 2300) شد، تفاوت بسیار زیادی بین این دو تاریخ وجود دارد که هیچ کدام از آنها با یکدیگر صدق نمیکنند و معقول نیستند.

همین قسم بیشتر معلومات های که در باره هزاره ها ذکر شده اند ناقص اند و به همین سبب هزاره ها از شناخت و تاریخ خود بی خبر مانده اند.

در باره اصطلاح هزاره نیز نظریات زیادی ارایه شده که بعد از مطالعه ی آنها، معقولترین آنان این به نظر میآید که کلمه هزاره 700 سال قبل به هزاره ها اطلاق شد و این کلمه به حمزه بن آزرک پیوند دارد.

بعد از خلفای راشدین، معاویه یک حکومت فاسد و ضد اسلامی را بوجود آورده بود که بنام سلسله اموی ها یاد میشد که تقریباً 90 سال دوام کرد و به گفته عباس سفاح، توسط ابومسلم خراسانی آخرین خلیفه این سلسله کشته شد و حکومت از بین رفت و بعد عباس سفاح حکومت عباسیها را تشکیل داد که شبه حکومت اموی ها بود(قصرهای مجلل، شراب خوردن، عیش و نوش و لذت مادی بردن…).

عباس سفاح از ابومسلم خراسانی ترس و حراس داشت، چون ابومسلم خراسانی یک مرد شجاع، قوی و پرشهامت بود. عباس سفاح برای منافع خود و حکومت خود ابومسلم خراسانی را به قتل رسانید تا در آینده مانع راه او نشود.

سلسله عباسیها 500 سال دوام کرد که در صد سال اولی حکومت آنان تحولات زیادی بوجود آمد و بسیار پیشرفت و ترقی کردند اما 400 سال دیگر آن دوره خاموش و کند بود چون خلفای شان در عیش و نوش خود غرق بودند.

به همین سبب در صد سال اولی حکومت عباسیها که تقریباً 50 سال بعد از قیام ابو مسلم بود که قیام حمزه بن آزرک به وقوع پیوست که یکی از پرقدرت ترین قیامهای مردمی در تاریخ سیستان به شمار میرود، دامنه این قیام بدانجا کشید که هارون الرشید نامه ای برای پیمان صلح به حمزه نوشت و او که خواهان استقرار عدالت و مساوات اسلامی بود، خود را امیرالمومنین خواند و بدین گونه هارون الرشید را از خلافت خلع کرد.

جوانمردی، رشادت و دلاوری این شورشگر مردمی در این جنگها، به افسانه ها پیوست و در داستانهای مردم هزاره در طول زمان بشکل اسطوره ای نقش بست.

همچنین نحله فکری وی که رنگ تشیع داشت در مردم آن دوره تاثیرات دامنه دار بر جای نهاد. این نهضت سالهای طولانی در تار و پود مردم آن نواحی ریشه دوانید؛ به خصوص که نهضت شیعه مقارن آن ایام در سیستان بر ضد خلفای اموی و عباسی شکل گرفته بود و قیامهای متوالی علیه ظلم و جور حکام خلفای بنی امیه و ینی عباس به وقوع می پیوست.

و برخی از محقیقین و نویسندگان بدین باور اند که “اصطلاح هزاره” و حمزه بن آزرک بی پیوند نیستند.

و طبق بعضی از حقایق و قوانین دستور زبان دری این نظریه در مورد تصطلاح هزاره نسبتاً درست میباشد.

در زبان دری صفت نسبی یک اسم، با اضافه کردن حرف “ی” در آخر اسم ساخته میشود، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی

اسم

کابلی

کابل

ماشینی

ماشین

چوبی

چوب

کامپیوتری

کامپیوتر

آهنی

آهن

اما بعضی از صفات نسبی اینطور نیستند، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی

اسم

خانگی

خانه

بچگی

بچه

لوچگی

لوچه

این صقات نسبی قسمی به نظر میآیند که اسم+گی شده باشند، در حالیکه ما چنین قانون در دستور زبان دری نداشتیم و نداریم. حقیقت این است که اسمها+گی نشده بلکه اسمها+ی شده اند.

در قدیم در زبان دری بیشتر از کلمات در آخر خود دارای حرف “گ” بودند، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی(اسم قدیم+ی)

قدیم

امروزی

خانگی

خانگ

خانه

بچگی

بچگ

بچه

لوچگی

لوچگ (تا امروز مورد استفاده است)

لوچه

قسمی که دیده میشود، این صفات با پیروی از دستور زبان دری ساخته شده اند، یعنی اسم(قدیم)+ی گردیده.

مثال خوب دیگر آن کلمات “میوجات، غله جات” اند :

جمع

عربی

قدیم

امروزی

میوجات

میوج

میوگ

میوه

غله جات

غلج

غلگ

غله

کلمه”میوه و غله” در گذشته به ترتیب “میوگ و غلگ” بوده اند که در زبان عربی “میوج و غلج” گفته میشد چون در زبان عربی حرف “گ” وجود ندارد به همین سبب بجای حرف “گ” حرف “ج” را استقاده کرده اند که جمع آن از قانون جمع مونث در زبان عربی یعنی اسم+ات ساخته شده اند.

کلمه “هزاره” نیز همین قسم میباشد:

سند دیگر(نام جای-لغت عربی)

صفت نسبی

قدیم

امروزی

هزارجات

هزارگی

هزارگ

هزاره

ادبی:

آزرگی

آزرگ

آزره

عامیانه:

کلمه “آزرگ” به اصطلاح عامیانه در قدیم همان هزاره امروزی است و کلمات آزرگ و آزرک(حمزه بن آزرک) شباهت بسیار زیاد دارند، به همین سبب طبق گفتار دانشمندان، محقیفین و نویسندگان کلمه “هزاره” منسوب به حمزه بن آزرک بوده است.

توسط حامد حسین صالحی

Information on Situation of Hazaras in Post-Taliban Afghanistan

Query:UNHCR

What is the current situation of Hazaras who had actively opposed the Taliban regime?

What is the current level of political participation of various ethnic groups, including Hazaras?

Are the Taliban still present and active in Afghanistan today? If so, in what capacity?

Could an individual Hazara safely relocate within Afghanistan if this person faced persecution by the Taliban?

Response:

SUMMARY

According to sources consulted by the Resource Information Center, conditions for Afghanistan’s ethnic Hazara minority have improved significantly since a U.S.-led coalition ousted the Taliban regime in late 2001. Hazaras as a group no longer face overt persecution or discrimination, and they are fairly well represented in President Hamid Karzai’s transitional administration.

Relocation of Hazaras within Afghanistan could be hampered by the general lawlessness and factional fighting that plague parts of the country outside of Kabul. Moreover, Hazaras reportedly face unofficial discrimination in Pashtun-majority areas of southern Afghanistan. Read the rest of this entry

In Memory Of Hazaras’ Hero Abdul Khaliq Hazara

RISE TO POWER

Like a demon rising from the bog swamp, Nadir Khan rose and cast a hellish pall over Afghanistan.  It is well-known today that Nadir Khan invited Kalakani, the then ruler, to join him in Kabul so that they could discuss the political upheavals and had signed an oath on the Qur’an so that Kalakani would believe he was safe.  Unbeknownst to Kalakani that Nadir Khan would sell even his religion to get to power, the Tajik ruler accompanied the religious envoy sent by Nadir Khan to Kabul.  Once there, he was brutally shot and then hanged.  Nadir Khan’s trail of evil grew worse from then on.


When Nadir Shah seized political power, the first thing he did was execute all the famous or influential people of Afghanistan who were pro Amanullah Khan.  He had them executed indiscriminately.  From the Charkhi family alone, he had 18 members executed, including Ghulam Nabi Khan and Ghulam Jelani Khan, because of political differences.  Their brother Ghulam Sediq Khan was out of the country during this time and so his life was unknowingly spared.  Other people who were fortunate enough to escape the hand of Nadir Shah were Ghulam Jelani’s wife, Shah Bibi, and his daughters, Razia and Rabia.  Everyone else was executed.
He would not tolerate any support or loyalty anyone had towards Amanullah Khan, regardless of who they were or their standings in the society.  When Nadir Shah or one of his criminal stooges from his mercenary army saw even a wall which had so much as the name of Amanullah Khan written on it, they turn their cannons loose and destroy it.  Even books were not spared.  Book stores and libraries were torn down just for containing material that had Amanullah Khan’s picture or name.  Such was the hatred and insecurity Nadir Khan felt towards Amanullah Khan. Read the rest of this entry

Abdur Rahman Khan’s Tortures & Massacre of Hazaras

From the end of 1888, the amir spent eighteen months in his northern provinces bordering upon the Oxus, where he was engaged in pacifying the country that had been disturbed by revolts, and in punishing with a heavy hand all who were known or suspected to have taken any part in rebellion.

Shortly afterwards (in 1892) he succeeded in finally beating down the resistance of the Hazara tribe, who vainly attempted to defend their independence, within their highlands, of the central authority at Kabul. In the late 1880s many of the Hazara tribes revolted against Abdur Rahman, the first ruler to bring the country of Afghanistan under a centralized Afghan government. Consequent on this unsuccessful revolt, numbers of Hazaras fled to Quetta in Balochistan and to the area around Mashhed in northeastern Iran. Most active in the revolt were the Uruzgani, the southernmost of the Hazara tribes. Following their defeat, a considerable number of Uruzgani left the country, as did many Jaghuri, their nearest neighbors to the northeast. The territory, which they abandoned, was occupied by Afghans of the Ghilzai tribe, supported by the Amir as plan for Pashtunization of Afghanistan. Read the rest of this entry