Category Archives: Islamic
In a truly Islamic society women have the following rights in Islam:
1. The right and duty to obtain education.
2. The right to have their own independent property.
3. The right to work to earn money if they need it or want it.
4. Equality of reward for equal deeds.
5. The right to participate fully in public life and have their voices heard by those in power.
6. The right to provisions from the husband for all her needs and more.
7. The right to negotiate marriage terms of her choice.
8. The right to obtain divorce from her husband, even on the grounds that she simply can’t stand him.
9. The right to keep all her own money (she is not responsible to maintain any relations).
10. The right to get sexual satisfaction from her husband.
There is little point in discussing how well or badly so called ‘Islamic countries’ are living up to the teachings of Islam, or why. First it is necessary to clear up misunderstandings of what those teachings are.
Women are equal to men in the sight of God but they have in some respects different roles in life to men because of their different natures.
They differ psychologically, physiologically, and biologically from men. This makes them more suitable than men for certain responsibilities and less suitable than men for others.
Islam recognises these differences.
Oppression of women is the result of removing their rights. Islam gives men & women rights that are different in some aspects to those they have in the western world. The principle difference in the way these rights came about is also important. In the West rights became part of the law only after women had been through great political struggles and also partly due to the necessity of women working in factories during wars. It is possible that this will be reversed in the future. In Islam, rights were given ‘out of the blue’ by God through revelation. They cannot be reversed by anyone’s decision. Most Muslims recognise the purity and validity of the Qur’anic laws even if they are not following them, but it may be necessary to struggle for a return to them from time to time. It is quite commonly agreed that all things in life which are worthwhile require some struggle.
There is considerable overlap of rights that now exist in the Western world and those which Muslim women have always had (at least in principle if not in practice).
God is the creator of all the creatures of Universe and among these all creatures; Human beings have held position of Supreme Creature (Ashraf-ul-Makhloqat) since they can think and act.
God says in Quran:
و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض
You are prompt as an authoritarian on the earth and sky.
و نفخت فيد من روحی
Oh! Human beings I have inserted my soul in your body.
Human Beings are the representatives of God over the earth; Mankind has all those bounded adjectival abilities that God has.
Human colonies on unlike races survive in different places of the world and each of those’ culture, voice communication and customs differ and colonies’ characters which recall their culture, language and tradition have high state of social and technological developments.
“Hazaras” have stayed one of the most deprived communities amongst the world tribes; consorting to groups of researchers 7000 years and 2300 years ago, they used to dwell in Mid-Asia regions and had confronted monumental civilizations but out of the blue they weren’t able to hike up their endowments as their culture and language were profaned by the adversaries and outsiders; afterwards they have stayed behind of their recognition.
There aren’t enough authentic data of Hazaras’ history since researchers don’t have reliable proofs for their aspects as you see two dates (7000 & 2300) were mentioned about Hazaras’ historic periods above which differ in high extent and thus aren’t legitimate.
Likewise many notions have been put across the phrase “Hazara”, an estimation saying almost 700 years ago in 14th century; group of people were named “Hazara” which is adverted to “Hamza-bin-Azrak” (حمزه بن آزرک).
Later on Rasheedin Caliphates, Muawiyah-ibn-abu-sufyan (معاویه) had developed a corrupt and anti-Islam government called “Umayyad Caliphate” which endured almost for 90 years and the last ruler was defeated by Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; decreed by Abbas-e-Saffah and Umayyad Caliphate was likewise extirpated, afterwards Abbas-e-Saffah demonstrated a similar government to Umayyad Caliphate which was named “Abbasid Caliphate” (Luxuriant Castles, drunkenness, …).
Abbas-e-Saffah was dreaded and scared of Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; since he was invulnerable to fear and intimidation, anyways Abbas-e-Saffah wiped Abu-Muslim-Khurasani out for his personal profits and his future conveniences.
Abbasid Caliphate lasted for 500 years; the first 100 years of the Dynasty were glowing and were highly enthusiastic, there is not doubt that great Islamic civilizations and elaborations are seen in this period but regrettably the other 400 years didn’t retain as first 100 years, with the order reversed this period persisted gloomy and dingy.
About 50 years later Abu-Muslim-Khurasani’s dissension in first 100 years of the Abbasid Caliphate; a person called “Hamza-bin-Azrak” who was from Khurasan, dissented and protested against depraved government of Abbasid Caliphate which is considered one of the most potent public protest in history of Sistan and the protest’s consequences caused Harun al-Rashid (The 5th and most famous Abbasid Caliph) to write a letter of peace offering to Hamza-bin-Azrak and he who desired justice and Islamic equality, declared himself Commander of the Faithful (Amīr al-Mu’minīn) and likewise subverted Harun al-Rashid of Caliphate.
Courage, bravery and gallantry of this public insurgent in wars, converted to myths and by the passage of time touched on as mythic tales in Hazaras’ narrations.
Likewise as his panoramas and thoughts were colored Shiat-form led upshot broadly and extensively in people of that period. This Campaign rooted in warps and woofs of people in that region for legion years; especially the simultaneous movement of the Shiite holy Sistan against the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs was formed and consecutive protests against injustice and Bani-Umayyad rulers and Bani-Abbas were joining the occurrence.
Some of the research workers and writers believe that the phrase “Hazara” has link with Hamza-bin Azrak.
According to some facts and rules of Dari grammar this theory is likely correct.
In Dari Language we make Adjectives of a noun (صفت نسبی) by adding “ی” at the end of the noun; Such as:
But if we see some of the adjective aren’t so; Such as:
The above adjectives seem to be as constructed as if “noun + گی”, as we know we didn’t and don’t have such rule in Dari grammar.
But the truth is that it isn’t “noun + گی”, it is “noun + ی” …
In past in Dari language many of the words had got “گ” at the end, Such as:
As you see the above adjectives are made according to the Dari grammar rule; noun (past)+ی
There are some other nice examples:
The word “غله and میوه” were “غلگ and میوگ” in the past which are pronounced and written “غلج and “میوج in Arabic, since we don’t have “گ” in Arabic and that’s why instead of “گ” we use “ج” and as well the plural is made according to the rule of Arabic grammar “noun+ات”, such as “میوجات and غلجات”.
The same case is with the Phrase “Hazara”:
The word “Azrag” in slang term in past is the same modern “Hazara” and the Phrases “Azrag and Azrak” (Hamza-bin-Azrak) are very similar, that’s why according to the sayings of some of the writers and researchers the phrase “Hazara” is attributed to Hamza-bin-Azrak.
Contributed by Hamid Hussain Salihy
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آغاز كيمياگري اسلامي با اسامي مرداني همراه است كه احتمالا خود كيمياگر نبودهاند، اما با گذشت زمان و فرارسيدن قرن دهم ميلادي ، كيمياگران شهيري از ميان آنان برخاستند كه علاوه بر تفكراتشان ، نوشتارهاي كاملا جديد و نويني خلق كردند.
امام جعفر صادق عليه السلام (148 ـ 82 هـ . ق. / 770 ـ 705 م.)
محضر پر فيض حضرت امام صادق (ع) ، مجمع جويندگان علوم بود. با دانش پژوهي كه به محفل آن حضرت راه مييافت از خرمن لايزال دانش او بهره مند ميشد. در علم كيميا ايشان نخستين كسي بودند كه عقيده به عناصر چهارگانه (عناصر اربعه) آب ، آتش ، خاك و باد را متزلزل كردند. از فرمودههاي ايشان است كه : «من تعجب ميكنم مردي چون ارسطو چگونه متوجه نشده بود كه خاك يك عنصر نيست. بلكه عنصرهاي متعددي در آن وجود دارد.» ايشان هزار سال پيش از پرسينلي ، لاووازيه و … دريافته بود كه در آب چيزي هست كه ميسوزد (كه امروزه آن را هيدروژن مينامند).
از امام صادق (ع) ، رسالهاي در علم كيميا تحت عنوان «رسالة في علم الصناعة و الحجر المكرم» باقيمانده كه دكتر «روسكا» آن را به زبان آلماني ترجمه و در سال 1924 آن را تحت عنوان «جعفر صادق امام شيعيان ، كيمياگر عربي» در «هايدبرگ» به چاپ رسانده است. به عنوان مثال و براي آشنايي با نظرات حضرت صادق (ع) در شيمي ، خلاصهاي از بررسي دكتر «محمد يحيي هاشمي» را در ذيل درج ميكنيم:
از شرحي كه امام صادق (ع) براي اكسيد ميدهد، چنين معلوم ميشود كه اكسيد جسمي بوده كه از آن براي رفع ناخالصي در فلزات استفاده شده است. ايشان تهيه اكسيد اصغر (اكسيد زرد) را از خود و آهن و خاكستر به كمك حرارت و با وسايل آزمايشگاهي آن دوره ، مفصلا شرح داده و نتيجه عمل را كه جسمي زرد رنگ است، اكسيد زرد نام نهادهاند. اين شرح كاملا با فروسيانيد پتاسيم كه جسمي است زرد رنگ به فرمول Fe(CN)6] K4] منطبق است و … . نتيجه عمل بعد از طي مراحلي ايجاد و تهيه طلاي خالص است. امروزه نيز از همين خاصيت سيانور مضاعف طلا و پتاس براي آبكاري با طلا استفاده ميشود.
جابر بن حيان (200 ـ 107 هـ . ق / 815 ـ 725 ميلادي)
جابربين حيان معروف به صوفي يا كوفي ، كيمياگر ايراني بوده و در قرن نهم ميلادي ميزيسته و بنا به نظريه اكثريت قريب به اتفاق كيمياگران اسلامي ، وي سرآمد كيمياگران اسلامي قلمداد ميشود. شهرت جابر نه تنها به جهان اسلام محدود نميشود و غربيها او را تحت عنوان «گبر» ميشناسند.ابن خلدون درباره جابر گفته است:
جابربن حيان پيشواي تدوين كنندگان فن كيمياگري است.
Main article: Sectarian violence in Pakistan
Pakistan, the country with the second largest Muslim population in the world, has seen serious Shia-Sunni discord. Almost 80% of Pakistan’s population is Sunni, with 20% being Shia, but this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country, larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. Until recently Shia-Sunni relations have been cordial, and majority of people of both sects participated in the creation the state of Pakistan in 1940s. Despite the fact that Pakistan is a Sunni majority country, Shias have been elected to top offices and played an important part in the country’s history. The founder of Pakistan Muhammed Ali Jinnah and the Bhutto family are Shia Muslims, as is Asif Ali Zardari and several top Pakistani Generals such as General Yahya Khan and General Musa Khan. Read the rest of this entry