Category Archives: Islamic

Escape from Modern Rationality

Humans are social animals that always confront social clashes which sometimes lead them to improve but sometimes lead them to pursue in darkness; both outputs are based on the way, members of a society react upon matters.

Afghanistan has been opposing modern educational, political and social systems since ancient times. In schools, humans improve their proficiencies but schools were considered as profane phenomenon among us for a long time since schools are the resultant of modernity. The requirements of modern educational system don’t carry any ethnic and gender borders; men and women with equal rights deserve to have their hungry minds fed but we, for the first time denied the ideas of building schools and teaching both males and females equally in Amir Habibullah Khan’s period.

Modern communities have treated modern implements rationally and have gained great changes and civilizations but we are witnessing ignorance in Afghanistan because we haven’t treated modern implements rationally and have denied the modern political and social systems as once upon a time when the legislation of codified laws were introduced, spiritual leaders had held Holy Quran in one hand and the constitution in other and were asking people if they accepted the Quran or the constitution whilst in many Islamic countries both are admitted.

Social life is a continuous field of varieties and every change is a steady circuit which doesn’t end and makes us unable to deny it. For having a prosperous and advanced life, the change of circumstances’ status is a must and this is clear that Afghanistan has always stood against these changes, which has caused us to have such crises.

We need to know four significant theories for the recognition of the reasons of resistances like opposing modern systems and disputing the change of circumstances’ status in our community.

• Culture (First theory):
We have extraordinary dealing with culture because it’s one of most significant phrases in our daily life.

• Readjustment and adaption with environments (Second theory):
The relation between adaption and culture is that culture provides us the tools for adaption with both natural and social environments. For existence and survival we need to conform to both environments and this is not possible to live in a society and don’t be compatible with its language, customs, ideals and goals.

As an example, in Islamic societies, there are some obligations that members of communities should adopt for being able to live a better life among people such as having particular covering which is called “Hijab” or dealing with other Islamic commitments. So, we realize that life gets promoted stepwise to the extent we accommodate with both environments.

For example, it’s clear that we can’t extract, pull out food and other essentials of life and haven’t been able to use of our natural surroundings. Hence, we are poor since our minds are hungry and that we haven’t accorded with the environment, that’s why members of an unwise society always pursue poor and pathetic life like us.

Adaption with natural environment is clear but adaption with social environment needs to be focused on, social environment is an arena of conflict, collision and contrasts which are ensued of contradictory interests; each individual as a living creature has aims which can be in opposition with aims of other individuals in a society. Therefore, we need normative and legal systems for disposal of conflicts and to prohibit them causing war all against all and let us live comfortably in a society.

As told before that culture provides us the tools for adaption like technologies, media and industrial instruments to adapt with natural environment and provides us language, customs, ideals, goals, normative and legal operating systems to adapt with social environment. It’s true that all societies have goals and seek to reach them and goals need instruments to be achieved, we should choose the most proper instruments for which we need to obey the characteristics of rationality.

Right away we get a result of all above mentioned details about resistance that we have been opposing the change of adaptive patterns, for example by the passage of time the traditional ways of farming were changed to industrial tools in agriculture for having better results and first world countries chose industrial tools for agriculture for obtaining bread and butter but we have always been choosing traditional ways for farming, there is no doubt that they have had better livelihood than us since the chosen tools were based on features of rationality.

Or as an example in traditional ways in past, when a person committed crime so all members of the tribe were punished or that the daughter of the criminal’s family was handed over the victim’s family, these were not done because of whims, they were sorts of adaption with social environment for diminishing frictions but in other side if we use modern legal and judicial systems to solve the same case, so, of course we will have intellectual outcomes.

• Rationality (Third theory):
Now we realize that in journey along the life, humans have always changed the ways of adaption with both natural and social environments, these changes are whether led of inevitability or that modern ways are more efficient than our past irrational traditional ways. Hereof we get into the third topic called rationality.

This is obvious that rationality is one of the modern world’s manifestations, means that modern and industrial society or modern world is recognized on the concept of rationality. The simplest meaning of rationality is that we should choose the equipments for gaining our goals which are based on three characteristics:

1. We have got to choose the tools which have more profits and fewer losses means that we had better not pick out the tools which have more losses and fewer profits.

2. The second characteristic of rationality is that we have to opt the tools which are efficient means that our tools should be able to meet our goals and ideals altogether.

As an example historic social experiences have proved that imperial and royal political systems aren’t suitable tools for meeting our political purposes and that’s why people suggested and preferred democratic system rather to imperial system, since democracy has fewer detriments and is more efficient in distribution of power and in controlling of society, thus democratic system is better than any other political system.

3. The third characteristic of rationality is that we should choose the path which holds the lowest cost. For instance, treating the murder case by handing over the daughter to the victim’s family holds highest moral costs. Or using tools for construction of a building, it seems quite irrational to choose the tools which hold higher costs when we already have low costing tools.

Thus, modification of ways for facing up the terms means that mankind’s ways have always redirected to rationality for adaption with environments since beginning till now, entails that we have tried to select the tools for adaption with both environments which have more profits and fewer losses, which are efficient and which hold the lowest costs.

Therefore we should admit that change and revision in selections is a must in life and the difference that we and modern world have is only and only in selections; their selections have been rational which has resulted them to have more powerful compatibility with natural and social environments than us, thus they have been able to create a peaceful and humanitarian social environment and have been able to use of nature and provide livelihood to all members of their society.

So far, we have mentioned three main issues which are rationality, adaption and culture which have close relations; adaption and compatibility are the significant things for survival of life and the tools for adjustment are provided by culture but sometimes we select the tools that have three characteristics of rationality therefore it is called a rational handling and sometimes we select the tools which aren’t based on the rationality and hence, it is called an irrational deal.

• Past traditions called “Sonnat” in Dari (Fourth theory):
Right away, some might ask that “those who don’t deal rationally so, how do they deal?” For this we need to know the fourth theory or concept which is “past traditions” or “Sonnat”. Here we don’t mean religious Sonnat; we mean the customs which have passed on from generation to generation.

The people who treat new implements irrationally are those who give priority to “past traditions” and always compare modern models if they are meeting with their past traditions. As when democracy was introduced, so modern world asked if democratic system had more profits and fewer losses, was efficient and had low cost than imperial system, but the first question we asked was that if democracy met our tribal traditions or not. And there is no doubt that you don’t find out phrases like Christian democracy, evangelical democracy or catholic democracy in modern world societies, but in our society we witness existence of “Islamic democracy” discussions which clearly shows that “does the democratic system match our past tribal traditions or not?” If yes we accept and if not so we deny though if they have the characteristics of rationality too.

Instantly, we understand that tribal traditions have invariably caused us to oppose rationality, the modern world and its systems.
Why is “Loya Jirga” an acceptable power distributive tool in our government which is proved one of the most backward and decadent symbol? Why do people suggest playing lottery on distribution of power in government while our society is facing heavy political crises? Why?
Because the concept of “Loya Jirga” was highly compatible with our ancestors’ social and historic customs in past and we didn’t analyze it when it was gifted to us and by the passage of time the environments caused us to be entirely compatible with this concept.

Do you think customs and traditions are of our use which can’t inhibit poverty, ignorance, tyranny, contrast, tribal and social conflicts in our society? What is the use of such customs? Besides this, you know that we are concerned of our customs and traditions rather than poverty, ignorance and inequality.

In our society “Afghani honor” is considered not the case of interaction with modern world; group of Afghans were asked of their reputation by Iranians, Afghans had replied that (افغان هستیم! الحمدالله، سواد نداریم ولی غیرت داریم). Which “Afghani honor” are they talking about? Afghans have been proved the history’s faintest cowards in social experiments. What honor? Owners of the country who even can’t build half meter road for themselves, 20% to 30% of residents who are displaced in other countries and work as laborers for others, those who lean on foreign donations and say that they can’t build classes for sons and daughters of the society because they aren’t donated, do you think the owners of that society have honor? The phrase “Afghani honor” is nothing more than a junk, trash, and rubbish.

Societies have honor that broke the shelters of sky and galaxies, those who led and improved unprecedented and unparallel education and civilizations, those who established modern political systems and those who led peaceful living environment for their people.

We should admit openly that we are Afghan and neither have literacy nor honor, so, in selection of tools for adaption first of all we try to relieve our tribal traditions, those customs which have led nothing except stupor, misery, nonsense and rot in our society. Thus, the ways and tools which we have always selected have been based on past tribal traditions and this has caused us to run away of rationality.

Reference:
Dr. Mohammad Jawad Sultani’s speech in a seminar.

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What are women’s rights in Islam?

Women in Islam


In a truly Islamic society women have the following rights in Islam:
1. The right and duty to obtain education.
2. The right to have their own independent property.
3. The right to work to earn money if they need it or want it.
4. Equality of reward for equal deeds.
5. The right to participate fully in public life and have their voices heard by those in power.
6. The right to provisions from the husband for all her needs and more.
7. The right to negotiate marriage terms of her choice.
8. The right to obtain divorce from her husband, even on the grounds that she simply can’t stand him.
9. The right to keep all her own money (she is not responsible to maintain any relations).
10. The right to get sexual satisfaction from her husband.
and more…

Why are women oppressed in Islamic countries?

There is little point in discussing how well or badly so called ‘Islamic countries’ are living up to the teachings of Islam, or why. First it is necessary to clear up misunderstandings of what those teachings are.
Women are equal to men in the sight of God but they have in some respects different roles in life to men because of their different natures.
They differ psychologically, physiologically, and biologically from men. This makes them more suitable than men for certain responsibilities and less suitable than men for others.
Islam recognises these differences.
Oppression of women is the result of removing their rights. Islam gives men & women rights that are different in some aspects to those they have in the western world. The principle difference in the way these rights came about is also important. In the West rights became part of the law only after women had been through great political struggles and also partly due to the necessity of women working in factories during wars. It is possible that this will be reversed in the future. In Islam, rights were given ‘out of the blue’ by God through revelation. They cannot be reversed by anyone’s decision. Most Muslims recognise the purity and validity of the Qur’anic laws even if they are not following them, but it may be necessary to struggle for a return to them from time to time. It is quite commonly agreed that all things in life which are worthwhile require some struggle.
There is considerable overlap of rights that now exist in the Western world and those which Muslim women have always had (at least in principle if not in practice).

The Phrase; Hazara

The Phrase; Hazara

__________________________________________________________________________

ENGLISH EDITION

God is the creator of all the creatures of Universe and among these all creatures; Human beings have held position of Supreme Creature (Ashraf-ul-Makhloqat) since they can think and act.

God says in Quran:
و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض
You are prompt as an authoritarian on the earth and sky.
و نفخت فيد من روحی
Oh! Human beings I have inserted my soul in your body.

Human Beings are the representatives of God over the earth; Mankind has all those bounded adjectival abilities that God has.

The boy who plays on the budha statues

The Boy who Plays on the Buddhas of Bamiyan

Human colonies on unlike races survive in different places of the world and each of those’ culture, voice communication and customs differ and colonies’ characters which recall their culture, language and tradition have high state of social and technological developments.

“Hazaras” have stayed one of the most deprived communities amongst the world tribes; consorting to groups of researchers 7000 years and 2300 years ago, they used to dwell in Mid-Asia regions and had confronted monumental civilizations but out of the blue they weren’t able to hike up their endowments as their culture and language were profaned by the adversaries and outsiders; afterwards they have stayed behind of their recognition.

There aren’t enough authentic data of Hazaras’ history since researchers don’t have reliable proofs for their aspects as you see two dates (7000 & 2300) were mentioned about Hazaras’ historic periods above which differ in high extent and thus aren’t legitimate.

Likewise many notions have been put across the phrase “Hazara”, an estimation saying almost 700 years ago in 14th century; group of people were named “Hazara” which is adverted to “Hamza-bin-Azrak” (حمزه بن آزرک).

Later on Rasheedin Caliphates, Muawiyah-ibn-abu-sufyan (معاویه) had developed a corrupt and anti-Islam government called “Umayyad Caliphate” which endured almost for 90 years and the last ruler was defeated by Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; decreed by Abbas-e-Saffah and Umayyad Caliphate was likewise extirpated, afterwards Abbas-e-Saffah demonstrated a similar government to Umayyad Caliphate which was named “Abbasid Caliphate” (Luxuriant Castles, drunkenness, …).
Abbas-e-Saffah was dreaded and scared of Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; since he was invulnerable to fear and intimidation, anyways Abbas-e-Saffah wiped Abu-Muslim-Khurasani out for his personal profits and his future conveniences.

Abbasid Caliphate lasted for 500 years; the first 100 years of the Dynasty were glowing and were highly enthusiastic, there is not doubt that great Islamic civilizations and elaborations are seen in this period but regrettably the other 400 years didn’t retain as first 100 years, with the order reversed this period persisted gloomy and dingy.

About 50 years later Abu-Muslim-Khurasani’s dissension in first 100 years of the Abbasid Caliphate; a person called “Hamza-bin-Azrak” who was from Khurasan, dissented and protested against depraved government of Abbasid Caliphate which is considered one of the most potent public protest in history of Sistan and the protest’s consequences caused Harun al-Rashid (The 5th and most famous Abbasid Caliph) to write a letter of peace offering to Hamza-bin-Azrak and he who desired justice and Islamic equality, declared himself Commander of the Faithful (Amīr al-Mu’minīn) and likewise subverted Harun al-Rashid of Caliphate.

Courage, bravery and gallantry of this public insurgent in wars, converted to myths and by the passage of time touched on as mythic tales in Hazaras’ narrations.

Likewise as his panoramas and thoughts were colored Shiat-form led upshot broadly and extensively in people of that period. This Campaign rooted in warps and woofs of people in that region for legion years; especially the simultaneous movement of the Shiite holy Sistan against the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs was formed and consecutive protests against injustice and Bani-Umayyad rulers and Bani-Abbas were joining the occurrence.

Some of the research workers and writers believe that the phrase “Hazara” has link with Hamza-bin Azrak.

According to some facts and rules of Dari grammar this theory is likely correct.

In Dari Language we make Adjectives of a noun (صفت نسبی) by adding “ی” at the end of the noun; Such as:

But if we see some of the adjective aren’t so; Such as:

The above adjectives seem to be as constructed as if “noun + گی”, as we know we didn’t and don’t have such rule in Dari grammar.
But the truth is that it isn’t “noun + گی”, it is “noun + ی” …

In past in Dari language many of the words had got “گ” at the end, Such as:

As you see the above adjectives are made according to the Dari grammar rule; noun (past)+ی

There are some other nice examples:

The word “غله and میوه” were “غلگ and میوگ” in the past which are pronounced and written “غلج and “میوج in Arabic, since we don’t have “گ” in Arabic and that’s why instead of “گ” we use “ج” and as well the plural is made according to the rule of Arabic grammar “noun+ات”, such as “میوجات and غلجات”.

The same case is with the Phrase “Hazara”:

The word “Azrag” in slang term in past is the same modern “Hazara” and the Phrases “Azrag and Azrak” (Hamza-bin-Azrak) are very similar, that’s why according to the sayings of some of the writers and researchers the phrase “Hazara” is attributed to Hamza-bin-Azrak.

Contributed by Hamid Hussain Salihy

The best of Men – Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H

.:::Vote Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H:::.

Welcome to Best of Men Vote !!!
The BestofMen.org is pleased to announce that the following 10 candidates have been nominated for the final round of the Best of Men of All times. The listing is in alphabetical order, and visitors can vote for any one of them as the Best of Men. Winner and results will be announced on 02/02/2010. Voters may find a breif history of the candidates in the Profile section.

As you can see our God's last messenger (Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H) is listed there too.

So, Vote him and prove that Muslims still believe on him and love him.
Click here to visit the website and vote

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost – Afghanistan Presidential Candidate

Ramazan Bashardost

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost

قانون احوال شخصيه اهل تشیع: شوکت علی محمدی

من نيز مانند ديگر شهروندان متمدن هموطنم حق اظهار نظر در مورد قانون احوال شخصيه يا همان قانون مدني جامعه شيعه را براي خود محفوظ مي دانم! اما من نيز مانند اکثر قريب به اتفاق صاحب نظراني که حق نظر را محفوظ مي دانند و اظهار نظر کرده اند؛ لوح محفوظ اين يار نديده و فيل مولانا را نديده ام، جز تاريکي اقوال و موضع گيري هاي اين چنيني و آن چناني!

در مورد اين قانون طيف هاي گوناگوني اظهار نظر کرده اند؛

۱. منتقدان: منتقدان نيز به گروه هاي ريز تري تقسيم مي شوند؛

الف/1. گروهي که قانون را ديده و از ديد درون ديني نقد هايي بر آن وارد مي دانند مانند موسسه عالي کاتب.

ب/1. گروهي که قانون را نديده، اما با نگاه برون ديني و صرفا عقلاني به قضايا نگرسته و آن را ناقض حيثيت جهاني شيعيان مي دانند. اين گروه بدون در نظر داشت پيوست تدوين کنندگان به اردو گاه سياسي و ….نگران رويگرداني جامعه جهاني از شيعيان افغانستان که وجهه قابل قبولي تا کنون داشته اند؛ مي باشند.

ج/1. جماعتي که به دليل پيوست تدوين کنند گان اين قانون و به ويژه آقاي آيت الله محسني، با اين قانون مخالفند و مخالفت اروپاييان و امريکاييان را وسيله خرد کردن ايشان کرده اند.

د/1. جماعتي که گفتمان هويت سياسي را بر هويت مذهبي ترجيح مي دهند و پا گيري گفتمان و انديشه مذهب محور را موجب سوء استفاده عده اي غير هزاره از اين هويت و تضييع حقوق هزاره ها مي دانند. دليل اين گروه جدا انديشي اين اقليت هاي غير هزاره در مواقع خطر است که مسير شان را از هزاره ها جدا مي کنند.

ه/1. گروهي که چشم به گشايش بلاد فخيمه دارند و در صدد سوداي روشنفکري اند. اينان نه دغدغه مليتي و نه مذهبي دارند و نان خود مي پزند و………

و/1. خارجي ها: نظريات غربي ها در راه افتادن موج مخالفت با اين قانون، نقش مهمي داشته است. مباني انديشه غرب با اسلام تفاوت جوهري دارد. بسياري از آموزه هاي ديني ما براي آنان قابل درک و قابل قبول نيست؛ همان گونه بسياري از ارزش هاي جامعه غربي براي ما چنان است. پس غربي ها اين انتظار را نداشته باشند که ارزش هاي جامعه سکولار و اومانيست غربي در جامعه مسلمان و شديدا مذهبي افغانستان قابل پذيرش باشد. پس آزادي عقيده چه معنايي خواهد داشت! ارزشي غربي خود را به آن ملتزم مي دانند. قرار شنيدگي، عنوان تمکين به تجاوز به عنف در معادل انگليسي آن ترجمه شده که مشکلاتي پديد آورده است.

بسياري از ارزش هاي جامعه ما و غرب در تضاد همند مانند منزلت خانواده و مسؤوليت تربيتي و…اگر در آموزه اسلامي خروج زنان را در مواردي که حق شوهر ضايع مي شود؛ محدود کرده در مقابلش زن را از تأمين زندگي معاف داشته که در جامعه غربي خانواده به منزله «کوهبي تي شن» يا به قول ما به اندوالي تنزل داده است که زن به اندازه مرد باید مخارج زندگی را بپردازد. زن با معافیت از مخارج زندگی فرصت بیشتری برای پیشرفت و آزادی روانی بیشتری دارد تا به مسولیت اصلی او یعنی تربیت انسان که شان انبیاست بپردازد. در صورتي که عالمان روشن فکري مانند علامه فضل الله و…خروج زن را تنها در موردي خوف تضييع حقوق شوهر؛ منوط به اجازه شوهر دانسته است.

ادعاي مقايسه اين قانون با شريعت دشوار آفرين طالباني بي انصافي است. طالبان زنان را از تحصيل باز مي دارند و خروج و عبور و مرور زنان را بدون پليس (محارم) ممنوع مي دانند و …که در اين قانون و واقعيت جامعه شيعه هرگز چنين نيست.

موافقان:

1. اکثريت خاموش:

جامعه هزاره به دليل شيعه بودن و شيعه مسلمان شدن؛ همه مکانيسم هاي دفاعي خود را جهت حفظ هويت مذهبي فعال کرده بود! براي بقاي اين هويتي که در آغاز(سال36هجري به بعد که شنسب در حضور امام علي(ع) مسلمان شد و حکومت غور و غرجستان و مرو به غوريان هزاره واگذار شد) اقتدار سياسي و سعادت اخروي براي شان در پي داشته بود؛ هويت ملي خود را فدا کردند. هزاره هاي شيعه ماده131 قانون اساسي را احيا کننده حقوق پايمال شده شان مي دانند و اين قانون را نماد حضور برابر و انساني در کشور مي دانند. اکثريت خاموش، اين قانون را در اين مرحله اگر چه ناقص هم باشد نشان هويت شيعي خود مي دانند و با توجه به جو بي اعتمادي گذشته، تعديل زود هنگام آن را خطر جدي براي حذف خود مي شمارند.

2. عالمان برجسته ديني: اين قانون به وسيله عده اي از کار شناسان و با سوادان حوزوي تدوين شده و در شوراي علماي کابل تصويب شده و در اختيار وزير محترم عدليه که خود از کار شناسان حوزوي و نيز حقوقدان است قرار گرفت تا روند قانوني خود را طي کرد. عالمان برجسته جامعه ما مانند آيت الله العظمي محقق کابلي و  آيت الله محسني اين قانون را ديده و تأييد کرده اند. عالمان برزگواري مانند آيت الله العظمي فياض، صالحي ترکمني، تقدسي، صادقي پرواني، عرفاني يکاولنگي، و.. اين قانون را رد نکرده اند.

3. اکثريت نمايندگان شيعي پارلمان!

اما……

واقعيت آن است که ما اعتدال رواني نداريم! در موافقت ها و مخالفت ها راه افراط و تفريط را طي مي کنيم!

بر خي از جماعتي که مخالفت کرده اند، از سر دلسوزي است، اما نبايد آن را بوق و کرنا کنند که هر بي سواتي مانند من اظهار نظر کنند و قضايا پيچيده شود و احيانا وهني براي جامعه ما به شمار آيد. نخبگان جامعه راه هاي سالم تري را تمرين و جست و جو کنند. اين مسايل در محافل علمي بررسي شود.

اين مسأله، يک کار کاملا تخصصي است و بايد متخصصان اين فن، يعني فقیهان و عالمان طراز اول جامعه آن را بررسي علمي کنند.

واقعيت آن است که مبناي اين حقوق، نظريات مشهور علما است(اين اصطلاح فني علم فقه است) و آقاي محسني موافقت نکرده که نظريات خودش مبنا قرار گيرد! احتمالا او چنين روزهايي را پبش بيني مي کرده است. اگر چه صاحب نظران حوزوي مانند علامه فضل الله و …از بسياري از نظريات مشهور عبور کرده اند. واقعيت آن است که داشته­ی مورد اتفاق فقه ما همين است که آمده! اگر اشکالي هست در رکود اجتهاد حوزه ما است و تدوين کنندگان آن نظر سوء نداشته اند. ما اگر مخالف يک مسأله هستيم بايد آن را عالمانه نقد کنيم نه آن که جو جامعه التهاب زده را مکدر و تنش آلود کنيم.

مي شد و مي شود ادبيات بهتري در اين قانون استفاده کرد که چنين مشکلاتي پديد نيايد. ترسم آن است در اين مقطع، به جاي سرمه، چشم را کور کنيم که مباد! اميدوارم با حفظ حق نظر، دور انديش باشيم!

شيميدان هاي نامي اسلام

آغاز كيمياگري اسلامي با اسامي مرداني همراه است كه احتمالا خود كيمياگر نبوده‌اند، اما با گذشت زمان و فرارسيدن قرن دهم ميلادي ، كيمياگران شهيري از ميان آنان برخاستند كه علاوه بر تفكراتشان ، نوشتارهاي كاملا جديد و نويني خلق كردند.

امام جعفر صادق عليه السلام (148 ـ 82 هـ . ق. / 770 ـ 705 م.)

محضر پر فيض حضرت امام صادق (ع) ، مجمع جويندگان علوم بود. با دانش پژوهي كه به محفل آن حضرت راه مييافت از خرمن لايزال دانش او بهره مند ميشد. در علم كيميا ايشان نخستين كسي بودند كه عقيده به عناصر چهارگانه (عناصر اربعه) آب ، آتش ، خاك و باد را متزلزل كردند. از فرموده‌هاي ايشان است كه : «من تعجب ميكنم مردي چون ارسطو چگونه متوجه نشده بود كه خاك يك عنصر نيست. بلكه عنصرهاي متعددي در آن وجود دارد.» ايشان هزار سال پيش از پرسينلي ، لاووازيه و … دريافته بود كه در آب چيزي هست كه ميسوزد (كه امروزه آن را هيدروژن مينامند).

از امام صادق (ع) ، رساله‌اي در علم كيميا تحت عنوان «رسالة في علم الصناعة و الحجر المكرم» باقيمانده كه دكتر «روسكا» آن را به زبان آلماني ترجمه و در سال 1924 آن را تحت عنوان «جعفر صادق امام شيعيان ، كيمياگر عربي» در «هايدبرگ» به چاپ رسانده است. به عنوان مثال و براي آشنايي با نظرات حضرت صادق (ع) در شيمي ، خلاصه‌اي از بررسي دكتر «محمد يحيي هاشمي» را در ذيل درج ميكنيم:

از شرحي كه امام صادق (ع) براي اكسيد ميدهد، چنين معلوم ميشود كه اكسيد جسمي بوده كه از آن براي رفع ناخالصي در فلزات استفاده شده است. ايشان تهيه اكسيد اصغر (اكسيد زرد) را از خود و آهن و خاكستر به كمك حرارت و با وسايل آزمايشگاهي آن دوره ، مفصلا شرح داده و نتيجه عمل را كه جسمي زرد رنگ است، اكسيد زرد نام نهاده‌اند. اين شرح كاملا با فروسيانيد پتاسيم كه جسمي است زرد رنگ به فرمول Fe(CN)6] K4] منطبق است و … . نتيجه عمل بعد از طي مراحلي ايجاد و تهيه طلاي خالص است. امروزه نيز از همين خاصيت سيانور مضاعف طلا و پتاس براي آبكاري با طلا استفاده ميشود.

جابر بن حيان (200 ـ 107 هـ . ق / 815 ـ 725 ميلادي)

جابربين حيان معروف به صوفي يا كوفي ، كيمياگر ايراني بوده و در قرن نهم ميلادي ميزيسته و بنا به نظريه اكثريت قريب به اتفاق كيمياگران اسلامي ، وي سرآمد كيمياگران اسلامي قلمداد ميشود. شهرت جابر نه تنها به جهان اسلام محدود نميشود و غربيها او را تحت عنوان «گبر» ميشناسند.ابن خلدون درباره جابر گفته است:

جابربن حيان پيشواي تدوين كنندگان فن كيمياگري است.

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Shia-Sunni relations in Pakistan

Main article: Sectarian violence in Pakistan

Pakistan, the country with the second largest Muslim population in the world, has seen serious Shia-Sunni discord. Almost 80% of Pakistan’s population is Sunni, with 20% being Shia, but this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country, larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. Until recently Shia-Sunni relations have been cordial, and majority of people of both sects participated in the creation the state of Pakistan in 1940s. Despite the fact that Pakistan is a Sunni majority country, Shias have been elected to top offices and played an important part in the country’s history. The founder of Pakistan Muhammed Ali Jinnah and the Bhutto family are Shia Muslims, as is Asif Ali Zardari and several top Pakistani Generals such as General Yahya Khan and General Musa Khan. Read the rest of this entry