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Escape from Modern Rationality

Humans are social animals that always confront social clashes which sometimes lead them to improve but sometimes lead them to pursue in darkness; both outputs are based on the way, members of a society react upon matters.

Afghanistan has been opposing modern educational, political and social systems since ancient times. In schools, humans improve their proficiencies but schools were considered as profane phenomenon among us for a long time since schools are the resultant of modernity. The requirements of modern educational system don’t carry any ethnic and gender borders; men and women with equal rights deserve to have their hungry minds fed but we, for the first time denied the ideas of building schools and teaching both males and females equally in Amir Habibullah Khan’s period.

Modern communities have treated modern implements rationally and have gained great changes and civilizations but we are witnessing ignorance in Afghanistan because we haven’t treated modern implements rationally and have denied the modern political and social systems as once upon a time when the legislation of codified laws were introduced, spiritual leaders had held Holy Quran in one hand and the constitution in other and were asking people if they accepted the Quran or the constitution whilst in many Islamic countries both are admitted.

Social life is a continuous field of varieties and every change is a steady circuit which doesn’t end and makes us unable to deny it. For having a prosperous and advanced life, the change of circumstances’ status is a must and this is clear that Afghanistan has always stood against these changes, which has caused us to have such crises.

We need to know four significant theories for the recognition of the reasons of resistances like opposing modern systems and disputing the change of circumstances’ status in our community.

• Culture (First theory):
We have extraordinary dealing with culture because it’s one of most significant phrases in our daily life.

• Readjustment and adaption with environments (Second theory):
The relation between adaption and culture is that culture provides us the tools for adaption with both natural and social environments. For existence and survival we need to conform to both environments and this is not possible to live in a society and don’t be compatible with its language, customs, ideals and goals.

As an example, in Islamic societies, there are some obligations that members of communities should adopt for being able to live a better life among people such as having particular covering which is called “Hijab” or dealing with other Islamic commitments. So, we realize that life gets promoted stepwise to the extent we accommodate with both environments.

For example, it’s clear that we can’t extract, pull out food and other essentials of life and haven’t been able to use of our natural surroundings. Hence, we are poor since our minds are hungry and that we haven’t accorded with the environment, that’s why members of an unwise society always pursue poor and pathetic life like us.

Adaption with natural environment is clear but adaption with social environment needs to be focused on, social environment is an arena of conflict, collision and contrasts which are ensued of contradictory interests; each individual as a living creature has aims which can be in opposition with aims of other individuals in a society. Therefore, we need normative and legal systems for disposal of conflicts and to prohibit them causing war all against all and let us live comfortably in a society.

As told before that culture provides us the tools for adaption like technologies, media and industrial instruments to adapt with natural environment and provides us language, customs, ideals, goals, normative and legal operating systems to adapt with social environment. It’s true that all societies have goals and seek to reach them and goals need instruments to be achieved, we should choose the most proper instruments for which we need to obey the characteristics of rationality.

Right away we get a result of all above mentioned details about resistance that we have been opposing the change of adaptive patterns, for example by the passage of time the traditional ways of farming were changed to industrial tools in agriculture for having better results and first world countries chose industrial tools for agriculture for obtaining bread and butter but we have always been choosing traditional ways for farming, there is no doubt that they have had better livelihood than us since the chosen tools were based on features of rationality.

Or as an example in traditional ways in past, when a person committed crime so all members of the tribe were punished or that the daughter of the criminal’s family was handed over the victim’s family, these were not done because of whims, they were sorts of adaption with social environment for diminishing frictions but in other side if we use modern legal and judicial systems to solve the same case, so, of course we will have intellectual outcomes.

• Rationality (Third theory):
Now we realize that in journey along the life, humans have always changed the ways of adaption with both natural and social environments, these changes are whether led of inevitability or that modern ways are more efficient than our past irrational traditional ways. Hereof we get into the third topic called rationality.

This is obvious that rationality is one of the modern world’s manifestations, means that modern and industrial society or modern world is recognized on the concept of rationality. The simplest meaning of rationality is that we should choose the equipments for gaining our goals which are based on three characteristics:

1. We have got to choose the tools which have more profits and fewer losses means that we had better not pick out the tools which have more losses and fewer profits.

2. The second characteristic of rationality is that we have to opt the tools which are efficient means that our tools should be able to meet our goals and ideals altogether.

As an example historic social experiences have proved that imperial and royal political systems aren’t suitable tools for meeting our political purposes and that’s why people suggested and preferred democratic system rather to imperial system, since democracy has fewer detriments and is more efficient in distribution of power and in controlling of society, thus democratic system is better than any other political system.

3. The third characteristic of rationality is that we should choose the path which holds the lowest cost. For instance, treating the murder case by handing over the daughter to the victim’s family holds highest moral costs. Or using tools for construction of a building, it seems quite irrational to choose the tools which hold higher costs when we already have low costing tools.

Thus, modification of ways for facing up the terms means that mankind’s ways have always redirected to rationality for adaption with environments since beginning till now, entails that we have tried to select the tools for adaption with both environments which have more profits and fewer losses, which are efficient and which hold the lowest costs.

Therefore we should admit that change and revision in selections is a must in life and the difference that we and modern world have is only and only in selections; their selections have been rational which has resulted them to have more powerful compatibility with natural and social environments than us, thus they have been able to create a peaceful and humanitarian social environment and have been able to use of nature and provide livelihood to all members of their society.

So far, we have mentioned three main issues which are rationality, adaption and culture which have close relations; adaption and compatibility are the significant things for survival of life and the tools for adjustment are provided by culture but sometimes we select the tools that have three characteristics of rationality therefore it is called a rational handling and sometimes we select the tools which aren’t based on the rationality and hence, it is called an irrational deal.

• Past traditions called “Sonnat” in Dari (Fourth theory):
Right away, some might ask that “those who don’t deal rationally so, how do they deal?” For this we need to know the fourth theory or concept which is “past traditions” or “Sonnat”. Here we don’t mean religious Sonnat; we mean the customs which have passed on from generation to generation.

The people who treat new implements irrationally are those who give priority to “past traditions” and always compare modern models if they are meeting with their past traditions. As when democracy was introduced, so modern world asked if democratic system had more profits and fewer losses, was efficient and had low cost than imperial system, but the first question we asked was that if democracy met our tribal traditions or not. And there is no doubt that you don’t find out phrases like Christian democracy, evangelical democracy or catholic democracy in modern world societies, but in our society we witness existence of “Islamic democracy” discussions which clearly shows that “does the democratic system match our past tribal traditions or not?” If yes we accept and if not so we deny though if they have the characteristics of rationality too.

Instantly, we understand that tribal traditions have invariably caused us to oppose rationality, the modern world and its systems.
Why is “Loya Jirga” an acceptable power distributive tool in our government which is proved one of the most backward and decadent symbol? Why do people suggest playing lottery on distribution of power in government while our society is facing heavy political crises? Why?
Because the concept of “Loya Jirga” was highly compatible with our ancestors’ social and historic customs in past and we didn’t analyze it when it was gifted to us and by the passage of time the environments caused us to be entirely compatible with this concept.

Do you think customs and traditions are of our use which can’t inhibit poverty, ignorance, tyranny, contrast, tribal and social conflicts in our society? What is the use of such customs? Besides this, you know that we are concerned of our customs and traditions rather than poverty, ignorance and inequality.

In our society “Afghani honor” is considered not the case of interaction with modern world; group of Afghans were asked of their reputation by Iranians, Afghans had replied that (افغان هستیم! الحمدالله، سواد نداریم ولی غیرت داریم). Which “Afghani honor” are they talking about? Afghans have been proved the history’s faintest cowards in social experiments. What honor? Owners of the country who even can’t build half meter road for themselves, 20% to 30% of residents who are displaced in other countries and work as laborers for others, those who lean on foreign donations and say that they can’t build classes for sons and daughters of the society because they aren’t donated, do you think the owners of that society have honor? The phrase “Afghani honor” is nothing more than a junk, trash, and rubbish.

Societies have honor that broke the shelters of sky and galaxies, those who led and improved unprecedented and unparallel education and civilizations, those who established modern political systems and those who led peaceful living environment for their people.

We should admit openly that we are Afghan and neither have literacy nor honor, so, in selection of tools for adaption first of all we try to relieve our tribal traditions, those customs which have led nothing except stupor, misery, nonsense and rot in our society. Thus, the ways and tools which we have always selected have been based on past tribal traditions and this has caused us to run away of rationality.

Reference:
Dr. Mohammad Jawad Sultani’s speech in a seminar.

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April Fool’s History

The history of April Fool’s Day is generally unknown, but many have suggested some potential origins of this prankster holiday.

April fool

According to April-Fools.us, the holiday began in the late 1500’s in France when a new calendar was introduced and the New Year was moved from sometime in late March/early April to the date we now celebrate today, January 1.

While some people refused to believe or acknowledge that January 1 was the new New Year’s Day, others didn’t even hear about the alteration until several years after it happened! News obviously traveled very slowly in those days. These uninformed people were considered and labeled “fools” by everyone else.

Overtime, the custom of playing pranks on these people on April 1 each year developed.

Still others, according to Wikipedia, believe that the silly holiday began in Noah’s time. A newspaper article published in the late 1700’s in England said that the annual festival began because Noah sent his dove off too early, before the flood waters receded. This happened on the first day of April.

The Phrase; Hazara

The Phrase; Hazara

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ENGLISH EDITION

God is the creator of all the creatures of Universe and among these all creatures; Human beings have held position of Supreme Creature (Ashraf-ul-Makhloqat) since they can think and act.

God says in Quran:
و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض
You are prompt as an authoritarian on the earth and sky.
و نفخت فيد من روحی
Oh! Human beings I have inserted my soul in your body.

Human Beings are the representatives of God over the earth; Mankind has all those bounded adjectival abilities that God has.

The boy who plays on the budha statues

The Boy who Plays on the Buddhas of Bamiyan

Human colonies on unlike races survive in different places of the world and each of those’ culture, voice communication and customs differ and colonies’ characters which recall their culture, language and tradition have high state of social and technological developments.

“Hazaras” have stayed one of the most deprived communities amongst the world tribes; consorting to groups of researchers 7000 years and 2300 years ago, they used to dwell in Mid-Asia regions and had confronted monumental civilizations but out of the blue they weren’t able to hike up their endowments as their culture and language were profaned by the adversaries and outsiders; afterwards they have stayed behind of their recognition.

There aren’t enough authentic data of Hazaras’ history since researchers don’t have reliable proofs for their aspects as you see two dates (7000 & 2300) were mentioned about Hazaras’ historic periods above which differ in high extent and thus aren’t legitimate.

Likewise many notions have been put across the phrase “Hazara”, an estimation saying almost 700 years ago in 14th century; group of people were named “Hazara” which is adverted to “Hamza-bin-Azrak” (حمزه بن آزرک).

Later on Rasheedin Caliphates, Muawiyah-ibn-abu-sufyan (معاویه) had developed a corrupt and anti-Islam government called “Umayyad Caliphate” which endured almost for 90 years and the last ruler was defeated by Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; decreed by Abbas-e-Saffah and Umayyad Caliphate was likewise extirpated, afterwards Abbas-e-Saffah demonstrated a similar government to Umayyad Caliphate which was named “Abbasid Caliphate” (Luxuriant Castles, drunkenness, …).
Abbas-e-Saffah was dreaded and scared of Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; since he was invulnerable to fear and intimidation, anyways Abbas-e-Saffah wiped Abu-Muslim-Khurasani out for his personal profits and his future conveniences.

Abbasid Caliphate lasted for 500 years; the first 100 years of the Dynasty were glowing and were highly enthusiastic, there is not doubt that great Islamic civilizations and elaborations are seen in this period but regrettably the other 400 years didn’t retain as first 100 years, with the order reversed this period persisted gloomy and dingy.

About 50 years later Abu-Muslim-Khurasani’s dissension in first 100 years of the Abbasid Caliphate; a person called “Hamza-bin-Azrak” who was from Khurasan, dissented and protested against depraved government of Abbasid Caliphate which is considered one of the most potent public protest in history of Sistan and the protest’s consequences caused Harun al-Rashid (The 5th and most famous Abbasid Caliph) to write a letter of peace offering to Hamza-bin-Azrak and he who desired justice and Islamic equality, declared himself Commander of the Faithful (Amīr al-Mu’minīn) and likewise subverted Harun al-Rashid of Caliphate.

Courage, bravery and gallantry of this public insurgent in wars, converted to myths and by the passage of time touched on as mythic tales in Hazaras’ narrations.

Likewise as his panoramas and thoughts were colored Shiat-form led upshot broadly and extensively in people of that period. This Campaign rooted in warps and woofs of people in that region for legion years; especially the simultaneous movement of the Shiite holy Sistan against the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs was formed and consecutive protests against injustice and Bani-Umayyad rulers and Bani-Abbas were joining the occurrence.

Some of the research workers and writers believe that the phrase “Hazara” has link with Hamza-bin Azrak.

According to some facts and rules of Dari grammar this theory is likely correct.

In Dari Language we make Adjectives of a noun (صفت نسبی) by adding “ی” at the end of the noun; Such as:

But if we see some of the adjective aren’t so; Such as:

The above adjectives seem to be as constructed as if “noun + گی”, as we know we didn’t and don’t have such rule in Dari grammar.
But the truth is that it isn’t “noun + گی”, it is “noun + ی” …

In past in Dari language many of the words had got “گ” at the end, Such as:

As you see the above adjectives are made according to the Dari grammar rule; noun (past)+ی

There are some other nice examples:

The word “غله and میوه” were “غلگ and میوگ” in the past which are pronounced and written “غلج and “میوج in Arabic, since we don’t have “گ” in Arabic and that’s why instead of “گ” we use “ج” and as well the plural is made according to the rule of Arabic grammar “noun+ات”, such as “میوجات and غلجات”.

The same case is with the Phrase “Hazara”:

The word “Azrag” in slang term in past is the same modern “Hazara” and the Phrases “Azrag and Azrak” (Hamza-bin-Azrak) are very similar, that’s why according to the sayings of some of the writers and researchers the phrase “Hazara” is attributed to Hamza-bin-Azrak.

Contributed by Hamid Hussain Salihy

General Muhammad Musa Hazara

General Muhammad Musa Hazara
He is the oldest son of Sardar Yazdan Khan. He was a Naik (junior officer) in Hazara Pioneers and went to the Indian Miliary Academy in Dehra-Dun as a cadet and graduated with the first batch of the Indian commissioned officers. He was posted to the 6th Royal Battalion, 13th Frontier Force Rifles as a Platoon Commander in 1936. He took part in the Waziristan Operations in 1936-11938 and in World War II, where he served in North Africa. He served with distinction in the Pakistani Army and became the commander-in-chief of Pakistan Armed Forces during President Mohammad Ayub Khan’s regime (1958-1969). In 1965, Indian
Army attacked West Pakistan from Lahore border, with 600 modern tanks and 5 time bigger then Pakistan Army, but the President Field Marshal M. Ayub Khan and the brave commander-in-chief General M.Musa Khan defended the country with heart and soul. The Wahaga battle field became the graveyard of Indian tanks and Indian Army left their dead bodies in Pakistan soil. That was a great tribute to the Motherland Pakistan and that battle became an example of great defend in the world history. After he retired from the army, President Ayub appointed him as Governor of West Pakistan (1967-1969) and after serving for s few years; he retired and settled in Karachi. In 1987, he was appointed as Governor of Balochistan Province by President Zia-ul-Haq. He is the author of a book, his autobiography, Jawan to General. He died 1991.

گلوله‌اي كه ۴۲ سال درون سر يك زن جا خوش كرده بود

بعد از گذشت ۴۲ سال از ورود يك گلوله به داخل سر يك زن، پزشكان چيني موفق شدند آن را با موفقيت كامل از داخل سر اين زن بيرون بياورند!

به نقل از فرانس پرس ،  رسانه‌هاي چيني اعلام كردند كه پزشكان در جنوب‌غرب چين موفق شدند يك گلوله را كه به مدت چند دهه در داخل سر يك زن قرار داشت را با موفقيت از سر وي خارج كنند.

اين در حاليست كه اين زن «هي ونينگ» ۶۵ ساله است، در مصاحبه‌اي با رسانه‌هاي دولتي چين افزود: من طي اين ۴۲ سال هيچ احساس دردي نداشتم و تنها زماني كه يك روز براي غذا خوردن دچار مشكل شدم و سردرد به سراغم آمد، به پزشك مراجعه كرده و آن‌ها با عكسبرداري از سرم متوجه وجود يك شي خارجي درون غشاي بيروني مغزم شدند.
پزشكان در بيمارستان «چونگ گينگ» در جنوب‌غرب اين كشور پس از جراحي سر اين زن موفق شدند يك گلوله ۲/۵ سانتيمتري را از داخل سر وي بيرون آورند.

اين زن ۶۵ ساله در ادامه خاطر نشان كرد: احتمال مي‌دهم حين درگيري‌هاي مسلحانه‌اي كه در انقلاب فرهنگي بين سال‌هاي ۱۹۶۶ ميلادي تا ۱۹۷۶ ميلادي در كشور روي داد، اين گلوله از اسلحه يك شورشي يا مامور پليس شليك شده و وارد سر من شده باشد.

وي ادامه داد: در همان سال من به پزشك مراجعه كردم، اما آن‌ها تنها گفتند كه تنها يك زخمي بر روي سرم است و از عكسبرداري امتناع كردند. با اين حال، هم اكنون بسيار خوشحالم كه طي اين چهار دهه زنده مانده‌ام و از شر اين گلوله كوچك داخل مغزم خلاص شدم.

پیش از این نیز یک مادر بزرگ چینی که در طول جنگ جهانی دوم یک گلوله نظامیان ژاپنی در مغز او فرو رفته بود تحت عمل جراحی قرار گرفته بود  . این مادر بزرگ ۷۷ ساله از ۱۳ سالگی این گلوله و متعاقبا درد همراه آن را در سرش محفوظ نگه داشت. تا اینکه بالاخره پس از جراحی موفقیت آمیز از شر این گلوله و سردرد ناشی از آن رهایی پیدا کرد.

شيميدان هاي نامي اسلام

آغاز كيمياگري اسلامي با اسامي مرداني همراه است كه احتمالا خود كيمياگر نبوده‌اند، اما با گذشت زمان و فرارسيدن قرن دهم ميلادي ، كيمياگران شهيري از ميان آنان برخاستند كه علاوه بر تفكراتشان ، نوشتارهاي كاملا جديد و نويني خلق كردند.

امام جعفر صادق عليه السلام (148 ـ 82 هـ . ق. / 770 ـ 705 م.)

محضر پر فيض حضرت امام صادق (ع) ، مجمع جويندگان علوم بود. با دانش پژوهي كه به محفل آن حضرت راه مييافت از خرمن لايزال دانش او بهره مند ميشد. در علم كيميا ايشان نخستين كسي بودند كه عقيده به عناصر چهارگانه (عناصر اربعه) آب ، آتش ، خاك و باد را متزلزل كردند. از فرموده‌هاي ايشان است كه : «من تعجب ميكنم مردي چون ارسطو چگونه متوجه نشده بود كه خاك يك عنصر نيست. بلكه عنصرهاي متعددي در آن وجود دارد.» ايشان هزار سال پيش از پرسينلي ، لاووازيه و … دريافته بود كه در آب چيزي هست كه ميسوزد (كه امروزه آن را هيدروژن مينامند).

از امام صادق (ع) ، رساله‌اي در علم كيميا تحت عنوان «رسالة في علم الصناعة و الحجر المكرم» باقيمانده كه دكتر «روسكا» آن را به زبان آلماني ترجمه و در سال 1924 آن را تحت عنوان «جعفر صادق امام شيعيان ، كيمياگر عربي» در «هايدبرگ» به چاپ رسانده است. به عنوان مثال و براي آشنايي با نظرات حضرت صادق (ع) در شيمي ، خلاصه‌اي از بررسي دكتر «محمد يحيي هاشمي» را در ذيل درج ميكنيم:

از شرحي كه امام صادق (ع) براي اكسيد ميدهد، چنين معلوم ميشود كه اكسيد جسمي بوده كه از آن براي رفع ناخالصي در فلزات استفاده شده است. ايشان تهيه اكسيد اصغر (اكسيد زرد) را از خود و آهن و خاكستر به كمك حرارت و با وسايل آزمايشگاهي آن دوره ، مفصلا شرح داده و نتيجه عمل را كه جسمي زرد رنگ است، اكسيد زرد نام نهاده‌اند. اين شرح كاملا با فروسيانيد پتاسيم كه جسمي است زرد رنگ به فرمول Fe(CN)6] K4] منطبق است و … . نتيجه عمل بعد از طي مراحلي ايجاد و تهيه طلاي خالص است. امروزه نيز از همين خاصيت سيانور مضاعف طلا و پتاس براي آبكاري با طلا استفاده ميشود.

جابر بن حيان (200 ـ 107 هـ . ق / 815 ـ 725 ميلادي)

جابربين حيان معروف به صوفي يا كوفي ، كيمياگر ايراني بوده و در قرن نهم ميلادي ميزيسته و بنا به نظريه اكثريت قريب به اتفاق كيمياگران اسلامي ، وي سرآمد كيمياگران اسلامي قلمداد ميشود. شهرت جابر نه تنها به جهان اسلام محدود نميشود و غربيها او را تحت عنوان «گبر» ميشناسند.ابن خلدون درباره جابر گفته است:

جابربن حيان پيشواي تدوين كنندگان فن كيمياگري است.

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اصطلاح هزاره

خداوند خالق تمام مخلوقات کائنات میباشد. از میان این همه مخلوقات انسانان لقب اشرف المخلوقات را به خود گرفته اند، چون خودمختار و قادر به تفکروعمل میباشند.

خداوند در قرآن فرموده است: و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض

ترجمه: شما را بر زمین و آسمان مسلط ساختم.

و می فرماید: و نفخت فيد من روحی

ترجمه: ای انسان! من از روح خودم در تو دمیدم.

انسانان جانشینیان خدایند، هر صفتی که در خدا وجود دارد، در انسانان نیز وجود دارد ولی به شکلی محدود.

در جهان انسانان با نژادهای مختلف به شکلی جمعی دریک جای زندگی میکنند که  مطابق به محیط شان دارای فرهنگ، رسوم و رواجهای متفاوت میباشند و مترقی ترین آنان کسانی اند که به فکر فرهنگ، زبان، مردم و جامعه ای خود باشند.

در جهان ملتها و قبائل زیادی وجود دارند که یکی از محرومترین آنها ملت “هزاره” میباشد که به گفتهُ بعضی از محقیقین تقریبا ٌ 7000 سال  و به گفتهُ بعضی 2300  سال قبل در آسیای میانه زندگی میکردند که در دوره های زندگی آنان تمدن های بزرگ رخ داده اند اما در اثر تهاجم های اطرافیان شان قادر به بروز استعدادهای شان نشدند و فرهنگ و زبان شان پایمال شده و از هویت و شناخت خود دور بوده اند.

معلومات کافی در بارهُ هزازه ها و تاریخ آنان وجود ندارد، اگر وجود هم دارد، ناقص اند چون  محقیقین برای ثبوت نظریات شان کدام سند ندارند.

مثل ایکه قبلاً در باره ی دوره زندگی هزاره ها، تاریخی ذکر(7000 و 2300) شد، تفاوت بسیار زیادی بین این دو تاریخ وجود دارد که هیچ کدام از آنها با یکدیگر صدق نمیکنند و معقول نیستند.

همین قسم بیشتر معلومات های که در باره هزاره ها ذکر شده اند ناقص اند و به همین سبب هزاره ها از شناخت و تاریخ خود بی خبر مانده اند.

در باره اصطلاح هزاره نیز نظریات زیادی ارایه شده که بعد از مطالعه ی آنها، معقولترین آنان این به نظر میآید که کلمه هزاره 700 سال قبل به هزاره ها اطلاق شد و این کلمه به حمزه بن آزرک پیوند دارد.

بعد از خلفای راشدین، معاویه یک حکومت فاسد و ضد اسلامی را بوجود آورده بود که بنام سلسله اموی ها یاد میشد که تقریباً 90 سال دوام کرد و به گفته عباس سفاح، توسط ابومسلم خراسانی آخرین خلیفه این سلسله کشته شد و حکومت از بین رفت و بعد عباس سفاح حکومت عباسیها را تشکیل داد که شبه حکومت اموی ها بود(قصرهای مجلل، شراب خوردن، عیش و نوش و لذت مادی بردن…).

عباس سفاح از ابومسلم خراسانی ترس و حراس داشت، چون ابومسلم خراسانی یک مرد شجاع، قوی و پرشهامت بود. عباس سفاح برای منافع خود و حکومت خود ابومسلم خراسانی را به قتل رسانید تا در آینده مانع راه او نشود.

سلسله عباسیها 500 سال دوام کرد که در صد سال اولی حکومت آنان تحولات زیادی بوجود آمد و بسیار پیشرفت و ترقی کردند اما 400 سال دیگر آن دوره خاموش و کند بود چون خلفای شان در عیش و نوش خود غرق بودند.

به همین سبب در صد سال اولی حکومت عباسیها که تقریباً 50 سال بعد از قیام ابو مسلم بود که قیام حمزه بن آزرک به وقوع پیوست که یکی از پرقدرت ترین قیامهای مردمی در تاریخ سیستان به شمار میرود، دامنه این قیام بدانجا کشید که هارون الرشید نامه ای برای پیمان صلح به حمزه نوشت و او که خواهان استقرار عدالت و مساوات اسلامی بود، خود را امیرالمومنین خواند و بدین گونه هارون الرشید را از خلافت خلع کرد.

جوانمردی، رشادت و دلاوری این شورشگر مردمی در این جنگها، به افسانه ها پیوست و در داستانهای مردم هزاره در طول زمان بشکل اسطوره ای نقش بست.

همچنین نحله فکری وی که رنگ تشیع داشت در مردم آن دوره تاثیرات دامنه دار بر جای نهاد. این نهضت سالهای طولانی در تار و پود مردم آن نواحی ریشه دوانید؛ به خصوص که نهضت شیعه مقارن آن ایام در سیستان بر ضد خلفای اموی و عباسی شکل گرفته بود و قیامهای متوالی علیه ظلم و جور حکام خلفای بنی امیه و ینی عباس به وقوع می پیوست.

و برخی از محقیقین و نویسندگان بدین باور اند که “اصطلاح هزاره” و حمزه بن آزرک بی پیوند نیستند.

و طبق بعضی از حقایق و قوانین دستور زبان دری این نظریه در مورد تصطلاح هزاره نسبتاً درست میباشد.

در زبان دری صفت نسبی یک اسم، با اضافه کردن حرف “ی” در آخر اسم ساخته میشود، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی

اسم

کابلی

کابل

ماشینی

ماشین

چوبی

چوب

کامپیوتری

کامپیوتر

آهنی

آهن

اما بعضی از صفات نسبی اینطور نیستند، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی

اسم

خانگی

خانه

بچگی

بچه

لوچگی

لوچه

این صقات نسبی قسمی به نظر میآیند که اسم+گی شده باشند، در حالیکه ما چنین قانون در دستور زبان دری نداشتیم و نداریم. حقیقت این است که اسمها+گی نشده بلکه اسمها+ی شده اند.

در قدیم در زبان دری بیشتر از کلمات در آخر خود دارای حرف “گ” بودند، مثلاً :

صفت نسبی(اسم قدیم+ی)

قدیم

امروزی

خانگی

خانگ

خانه

بچگی

بچگ

بچه

لوچگی

لوچگ (تا امروز مورد استفاده است)

لوچه

قسمی که دیده میشود، این صفات با پیروی از دستور زبان دری ساخته شده اند، یعنی اسم(قدیم)+ی گردیده.

مثال خوب دیگر آن کلمات “میوجات، غله جات” اند :

جمع

عربی

قدیم

امروزی

میوجات

میوج

میوگ

میوه

غله جات

غلج

غلگ

غله

کلمه”میوه و غله” در گذشته به ترتیب “میوگ و غلگ” بوده اند که در زبان عربی “میوج و غلج” گفته میشد چون در زبان عربی حرف “گ” وجود ندارد به همین سبب بجای حرف “گ” حرف “ج” را استقاده کرده اند که جمع آن از قانون جمع مونث در زبان عربی یعنی اسم+ات ساخته شده اند.

کلمه “هزاره” نیز همین قسم میباشد:

سند دیگر(نام جای-لغت عربی)

صفت نسبی

قدیم

امروزی

هزارجات

هزارگی

هزارگ

هزاره

ادبی:

آزرگی

آزرگ

آزره

عامیانه:

کلمه “آزرگ” به اصطلاح عامیانه در قدیم همان هزاره امروزی است و کلمات آزرگ و آزرک(حمزه بن آزرک) شباهت بسیار زیاد دارند، به همین سبب طبق گفتار دانشمندان، محقیفین و نویسندگان کلمه “هزاره” منسوب به حمزه بن آزرک بوده است.

توسط حامد حسین صالحی

In Memory Of Hazaras’ Hero Abdul Khaliq Hazara

RISE TO POWER

Like a demon rising from the bog swamp, Nadir Khan rose and cast a hellish pall over Afghanistan.  It is well-known today that Nadir Khan invited Kalakani, the then ruler, to join him in Kabul so that they could discuss the political upheavals and had signed an oath on the Qur’an so that Kalakani would believe he was safe.  Unbeknownst to Kalakani that Nadir Khan would sell even his religion to get to power, the Tajik ruler accompanied the religious envoy sent by Nadir Khan to Kabul.  Once there, he was brutally shot and then hanged.  Nadir Khan’s trail of evil grew worse from then on.


When Nadir Shah seized political power, the first thing he did was execute all the famous or influential people of Afghanistan who were pro Amanullah Khan.  He had them executed indiscriminately.  From the Charkhi family alone, he had 18 members executed, including Ghulam Nabi Khan and Ghulam Jelani Khan, because of political differences.  Their brother Ghulam Sediq Khan was out of the country during this time and so his life was unknowingly spared.  Other people who were fortunate enough to escape the hand of Nadir Shah were Ghulam Jelani’s wife, Shah Bibi, and his daughters, Razia and Rabia.  Everyone else was executed.
He would not tolerate any support or loyalty anyone had towards Amanullah Khan, regardless of who they were or their standings in the society.  When Nadir Shah or one of his criminal stooges from his mercenary army saw even a wall which had so much as the name of Amanullah Khan written on it, they turn their cannons loose and destroy it.  Even books were not spared.  Book stores and libraries were torn down just for containing material that had Amanullah Khan’s picture or name.  Such was the hatred and insecurity Nadir Khan felt towards Amanullah Khan. Read the rest of this entry

Abdur Rahman Khan’s Tortures & Massacre of Hazaras

From the end of 1888, the amir spent eighteen months in his northern provinces bordering upon the Oxus, where he was engaged in pacifying the country that had been disturbed by revolts, and in punishing with a heavy hand all who were known or suspected to have taken any part in rebellion.

Shortly afterwards (in 1892) he succeeded in finally beating down the resistance of the Hazara tribe, who vainly attempted to defend their independence, within their highlands, of the central authority at Kabul. In the late 1880s many of the Hazara tribes revolted against Abdur Rahman, the first ruler to bring the country of Afghanistan under a centralized Afghan government. Consequent on this unsuccessful revolt, numbers of Hazaras fled to Quetta in Balochistan and to the area around Mashhed in northeastern Iran. Most active in the revolt were the Uruzgani, the southernmost of the Hazara tribes. Following their defeat, a considerable number of Uruzgani left the country, as did many Jaghuri, their nearest neighbors to the northeast. The territory, which they abandoned, was occupied by Afghans of the Ghilzai tribe, supported by the Amir as plan for Pashtunization of Afghanistan. Read the rest of this entry

Shia-Sunni relations in Pakistan

Main article: Sectarian violence in Pakistan

Pakistan, the country with the second largest Muslim population in the world, has seen serious Shia-Sunni discord. Almost 80% of Pakistan’s population is Sunni, with 20% being Shia, but this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country, larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. Until recently Shia-Sunni relations have been cordial, and majority of people of both sects participated in the creation the state of Pakistan in 1940s. Despite the fact that Pakistan is a Sunni majority country, Shias have been elected to top offices and played an important part in the country’s history. The founder of Pakistan Muhammed Ali Jinnah and the Bhutto family are Shia Muslims, as is Asif Ali Zardari and several top Pakistani Generals such as General Yahya Khan and General Musa Khan. Read the rest of this entry