Category Archives: General knowledge

Top Ten Richest Men – 2010

Mukesh Ambani is ranked fourth among the World’s top 10 billionaires by the Forbes Magazine with total assets worth $29 billion followed by another Indian, steel tycoon L N Mittal, who ranked fifth with a total value of $28.7 billion.

The Forbes Billionaires list for 2010 has witnessed Mexican Carlo Slim surpassing Bill Gates and Warrant Buffett to be the richest man on the earth. Slim’s total worth rose $18.5 billion during the year to an estimated $53.5 billion, the Forbes Magazine said. Gates remained second with a fortune of $53 billion.

Apart from Reliance Industries Chairman Mukesh Ambani and Head of ArcelorMittal L N Mittal, there were four other Indian tycoons in the top 50 list and 49 others in the complete list of 1,011 billionaires.

The four Indian businessmen, besides Ambani and Mittal, in the top 50 list are Azim Premji (ranked: 28, worth: $17 billion), Sashi Ruia and Ravi Ruia (ranked: 40, worth: $13 billion), and Savitri Jindal (ranked: 44, worth: $12.2 billion).

DLF’s K P Singh (74), Aditya Birla Group’s Kumar Mangalam Birla (86) and Bharti Airtel’s Head Sunil Mittal (87) are the other Indians who are among the top 100 wealthy in India.

Top Ten Richest Men - 2010

Escape from Modern Rationality

Humans are social animals that always confront social clashes which sometimes lead them to improve but sometimes lead them to pursue in darkness; both outputs are based on the way, members of a society react upon matters.

Afghanistan has been opposing modern educational, political and social systems since ancient times. In schools, humans improve their proficiencies but schools were considered as profane phenomenon among us for a long time since schools are the resultant of modernity. The requirements of modern educational system don’t carry any ethnic and gender borders; men and women with equal rights deserve to have their hungry minds fed but we, for the first time denied the ideas of building schools and teaching both males and females equally in Amir Habibullah Khan’s period.

Modern communities have treated modern implements rationally and have gained great changes and civilizations but we are witnessing ignorance in Afghanistan because we haven’t treated modern implements rationally and have denied the modern political and social systems as once upon a time when the legislation of codified laws were introduced, spiritual leaders had held Holy Quran in one hand and the constitution in other and were asking people if they accepted the Quran or the constitution whilst in many Islamic countries both are admitted.

Social life is a continuous field of varieties and every change is a steady circuit which doesn’t end and makes us unable to deny it. For having a prosperous and advanced life, the change of circumstances’ status is a must and this is clear that Afghanistan has always stood against these changes, which has caused us to have such crises.

We need to know four significant theories for the recognition of the reasons of resistances like opposing modern systems and disputing the change of circumstances’ status in our community.

• Culture (First theory):
We have extraordinary dealing with culture because it’s one of most significant phrases in our daily life.

• Readjustment and adaption with environments (Second theory):
The relation between adaption and culture is that culture provides us the tools for adaption with both natural and social environments. For existence and survival we need to conform to both environments and this is not possible to live in a society and don’t be compatible with its language, customs, ideals and goals.

As an example, in Islamic societies, there are some obligations that members of communities should adopt for being able to live a better life among people such as having particular covering which is called “Hijab” or dealing with other Islamic commitments. So, we realize that life gets promoted stepwise to the extent we accommodate with both environments.

For example, it’s clear that we can’t extract, pull out food and other essentials of life and haven’t been able to use of our natural surroundings. Hence, we are poor since our minds are hungry and that we haven’t accorded with the environment, that’s why members of an unwise society always pursue poor and pathetic life like us.

Adaption with natural environment is clear but adaption with social environment needs to be focused on, social environment is an arena of conflict, collision and contrasts which are ensued of contradictory interests; each individual as a living creature has aims which can be in opposition with aims of other individuals in a society. Therefore, we need normative and legal systems for disposal of conflicts and to prohibit them causing war all against all and let us live comfortably in a society.

As told before that culture provides us the tools for adaption like technologies, media and industrial instruments to adapt with natural environment and provides us language, customs, ideals, goals, normative and legal operating systems to adapt with social environment. It’s true that all societies have goals and seek to reach them and goals need instruments to be achieved, we should choose the most proper instruments for which we need to obey the characteristics of rationality.

Right away we get a result of all above mentioned details about resistance that we have been opposing the change of adaptive patterns, for example by the passage of time the traditional ways of farming were changed to industrial tools in agriculture for having better results and first world countries chose industrial tools for agriculture for obtaining bread and butter but we have always been choosing traditional ways for farming, there is no doubt that they have had better livelihood than us since the chosen tools were based on features of rationality.

Or as an example in traditional ways in past, when a person committed crime so all members of the tribe were punished or that the daughter of the criminal’s family was handed over the victim’s family, these were not done because of whims, they were sorts of adaption with social environment for diminishing frictions but in other side if we use modern legal and judicial systems to solve the same case, so, of course we will have intellectual outcomes.

• Rationality (Third theory):
Now we realize that in journey along the life, humans have always changed the ways of adaption with both natural and social environments, these changes are whether led of inevitability or that modern ways are more efficient than our past irrational traditional ways. Hereof we get into the third topic called rationality.

This is obvious that rationality is one of the modern world’s manifestations, means that modern and industrial society or modern world is recognized on the concept of rationality. The simplest meaning of rationality is that we should choose the equipments for gaining our goals which are based on three characteristics:

1. We have got to choose the tools which have more profits and fewer losses means that we had better not pick out the tools which have more losses and fewer profits.

2. The second characteristic of rationality is that we have to opt the tools which are efficient means that our tools should be able to meet our goals and ideals altogether.

As an example historic social experiences have proved that imperial and royal political systems aren’t suitable tools for meeting our political purposes and that’s why people suggested and preferred democratic system rather to imperial system, since democracy has fewer detriments and is more efficient in distribution of power and in controlling of society, thus democratic system is better than any other political system.

3. The third characteristic of rationality is that we should choose the path which holds the lowest cost. For instance, treating the murder case by handing over the daughter to the victim’s family holds highest moral costs. Or using tools for construction of a building, it seems quite irrational to choose the tools which hold higher costs when we already have low costing tools.

Thus, modification of ways for facing up the terms means that mankind’s ways have always redirected to rationality for adaption with environments since beginning till now, entails that we have tried to select the tools for adaption with both environments which have more profits and fewer losses, which are efficient and which hold the lowest costs.

Therefore we should admit that change and revision in selections is a must in life and the difference that we and modern world have is only and only in selections; their selections have been rational which has resulted them to have more powerful compatibility with natural and social environments than us, thus they have been able to create a peaceful and humanitarian social environment and have been able to use of nature and provide livelihood to all members of their society.

So far, we have mentioned three main issues which are rationality, adaption and culture which have close relations; adaption and compatibility are the significant things for survival of life and the tools for adjustment are provided by culture but sometimes we select the tools that have three characteristics of rationality therefore it is called a rational handling and sometimes we select the tools which aren’t based on the rationality and hence, it is called an irrational deal.

• Past traditions called “Sonnat” in Dari (Fourth theory):
Right away, some might ask that “those who don’t deal rationally so, how do they deal?” For this we need to know the fourth theory or concept which is “past traditions” or “Sonnat”. Here we don’t mean religious Sonnat; we mean the customs which have passed on from generation to generation.

The people who treat new implements irrationally are those who give priority to “past traditions” and always compare modern models if they are meeting with their past traditions. As when democracy was introduced, so modern world asked if democratic system had more profits and fewer losses, was efficient and had low cost than imperial system, but the first question we asked was that if democracy met our tribal traditions or not. And there is no doubt that you don’t find out phrases like Christian democracy, evangelical democracy or catholic democracy in modern world societies, but in our society we witness existence of “Islamic democracy” discussions which clearly shows that “does the democratic system match our past tribal traditions or not?” If yes we accept and if not so we deny though if they have the characteristics of rationality too.

Instantly, we understand that tribal traditions have invariably caused us to oppose rationality, the modern world and its systems.
Why is “Loya Jirga” an acceptable power distributive tool in our government which is proved one of the most backward and decadent symbol? Why do people suggest playing lottery on distribution of power in government while our society is facing heavy political crises? Why?
Because the concept of “Loya Jirga” was highly compatible with our ancestors’ social and historic customs in past and we didn’t analyze it when it was gifted to us and by the passage of time the environments caused us to be entirely compatible with this concept.

Do you think customs and traditions are of our use which can’t inhibit poverty, ignorance, tyranny, contrast, tribal and social conflicts in our society? What is the use of such customs? Besides this, you know that we are concerned of our customs and traditions rather than poverty, ignorance and inequality.

In our society “Afghani honor” is considered not the case of interaction with modern world; group of Afghans were asked of their reputation by Iranians, Afghans had replied that (افغان هستیم! الحمدالله، سواد نداریم ولی غیرت داریم). Which “Afghani honor” are they talking about? Afghans have been proved the history’s faintest cowards in social experiments. What honor? Owners of the country who even can’t build half meter road for themselves, 20% to 30% of residents who are displaced in other countries and work as laborers for others, those who lean on foreign donations and say that they can’t build classes for sons and daughters of the society because they aren’t donated, do you think the owners of that society have honor? The phrase “Afghani honor” is nothing more than a junk, trash, and rubbish.

Societies have honor that broke the shelters of sky and galaxies, those who led and improved unprecedented and unparallel education and civilizations, those who established modern political systems and those who led peaceful living environment for their people.

We should admit openly that we are Afghan and neither have literacy nor honor, so, in selection of tools for adaption first of all we try to relieve our tribal traditions, those customs which have led nothing except stupor, misery, nonsense and rot in our society. Thus, the ways and tools which we have always selected have been based on past tribal traditions and this has caused us to run away of rationality.

Reference:
Dr. Mohammad Jawad Sultani’s speech in a seminar.

April Fool’s History

The history of April Fool’s Day is generally unknown, but many have suggested some potential origins of this prankster holiday.

April fool

According to April-Fools.us, the holiday began in the late 1500’s in France when a new calendar was introduced and the New Year was moved from sometime in late March/early April to the date we now celebrate today, January 1.

While some people refused to believe or acknowledge that January 1 was the new New Year’s Day, others didn’t even hear about the alteration until several years after it happened! News obviously traveled very slowly in those days. These uninformed people were considered and labeled “fools” by everyone else.

Overtime, the custom of playing pranks on these people on April 1 each year developed.

Still others, according to Wikipedia, believe that the silly holiday began in Noah’s time. A newspaper article published in the late 1700’s in England said that the annual festival began because Noah sent his dove off too early, before the flood waters receded. This happened on the first day of April.

Why are women oppressed in Islamic countries?

There is little point in discussing how well or badly so called ‘Islamic countries’ are living up to the teachings of Islam, or why. First it is necessary to clear up misunderstandings of what those teachings are.
Women are equal to men in the sight of God but they have in some respects different roles in life to men because of their different natures.
They differ psychologically, physiologically, and biologically from men. This makes them more suitable than men for certain responsibilities and less suitable than men for others.
Islam recognises these differences.
Oppression of women is the result of removing their rights. Islam gives men & women rights that are different in some aspects to those they have in the western world. The principle difference in the way these rights came about is also important. In the West rights became part of the law only after women had been through great political struggles and also partly due to the necessity of women working in factories during wars. It is possible that this will be reversed in the future. In Islam, rights were given ‘out of the blue’ by God through revelation. They cannot be reversed by anyone’s decision. Most Muslims recognise the purity and validity of the Qur’anic laws even if they are not following them, but it may be necessary to struggle for a return to them from time to time. It is quite commonly agreed that all things in life which are worthwhile require some struggle.
There is considerable overlap of rights that now exist in the Western world and those which Muslim women have always had (at least in principle if not in practice).

Top 10 Richest Person In The World 2009

Do you know who is the richest person in the world ?……….

William Gates III

Rank: 1 Net Worth: $40.0 bil, Fortune: self made

William Gates

Software visionary regains title as the world’s richest man despite losing $18 billion in the past 12 months. Stepped down from day-to-day duties at Microsoft last summer to devote his talents and riches to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Organization’s assets were $30 billion in January; annual letter lauds endowment manager Michael Larson for limiting last year’s losses to 20%. Gates decided to increase donations in 2009 to $3.8 billion, up 15% from 2008. Dedicated to fighting hunger in developing countries, improving education in America’s high schools and developing vaccines against malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS. Appointed Microsoft Office veteran Jeffrey Raikes chief exec of Gates Foundation in September. Gates remains Microsoft chairman. Sells shares each quarter, redeploys proceeds via investment vehicle Cascade; more than half of fortune invested outside Microsoft. Stock down 45% in past 12 months. “Creative capitalist” wants companies to match profit making with doing good.

Warren Buffett

Rank: 2 Net Worth: $37.0 bil, Fortune: self made

Warren Buffett

Last year America’s most beloved investor was the world’s richest man . This year he has to settle for second place after losing $25 billion in 12 months. Shares of Berkshire Hathaway down 45% since last March. Injected billions of dollars into Goldman Sachs, GE in exchange for preferred stock last fall; propped up insurance firm Swiss Re in February with $2.6 billion infusion. Admits he made some “dumb” investment mistakes in 2008. Upbeat about America’s future: “Our economic system has worked extraordinarily well over time. It has unleashed human potential as no other system has, and it will continue to do so.” Scoffs at Wall Street’s over-reliance on “history-based” models: “If merely looking up past financial data would tell you what the future holds, the Forbes 400 would consist of librarians.” Son of Nebraska politician delivered newspapers as a boy. Filed first tax return at age 13, claiming $35 deduction for bicycle. Studied under value investing guru Benjamin Graham at Columbia. Took over textile firm Berkshire Hathaway 1965. Today holding company invested in insurance (Geico, General Re), jewelry (Borsheim’s), utilities (MidAmerican Energy), food (Dairy Queen, See’s Candies). Also has non-controlling stakes in Anheuser-Busch, Coca-Cola, Wells Fargo.

Carlos Slim Helu & family

Rank: 3 Net Worth: $35.0 bil, Fortune: self made

Carlos Slim Helu


Economic downturn and plunging peso shaved $25 billion from the fortune of Latin America’s richest man. Global recession testing his ability to live up to the principles he sets for his employees: “Maintain austerity in times of fat cows.” Son of a Lebanese immigrant bought fixed line operator Telefonos de Mexico (Telmex) in 1990; now controls 90% of Mexico’s telephone landlines. Would be a billionaire based on his dividends alone. Biggest holding: $16 billion stake in America Movil, Latin America’s largest mobile phone company with 173 million customers. America Movil and Telmex reportedly planning to jointly invest $4 billion to bolster telecom infrastructure in Latin America. Buying up cheap media, energy and retail assets. Last year took stakes in New York Times Co., former billionaire Anthony O’Reilly’s Independent News & Media and Bronco Drilling; also increased position in Saks. Baseball statistics aficionado, art collector

Lawrence Ellison

Rank: 4 Net Worth: $22.5 bil, Fortune: self made

Lawrence Ellison

Database titan continues to engulf the competition; Oracle has racked up 49 acquisitions in the past 4 years. Bought BEA Systems for $8.5 billion last year. Still sitting on $7 billion in cash. Revenues up 11% to $10.9 billion in the six months ended November 30; profits also up 11% to $2.4 billion. Stock down 25% in past 12 months. Invested $125 million in Web software outfit Netsuite; took public in 2007, stock has fallen 80% since. His shares still worth $300 million. Chicago native studied physics at U. of Chicago, didn’t graduate. Started Oracle in 1977. Public 1986, a day before Microsoft. Owns 453-foot Rising Sun; built a smaller leisure boat because superyacht is hard to park. Squabbling in court with Swiss boating billionaire Ernesto Bertarelli over terms of next America’s Cup. Recently unveiled hulking 90-foot trimaran he intends to use to win it.

Ingvar Kamprad & family

Rank: 5 Net Worth: $22.0 bil, Fortune: self made

Ingvar Kamprad


Peddled matches, fish, pens, Christmas cards and other items by bicycle as a teenager. Started selling furniture in 1947. Opened first Ikea store 50 years ago; stores’s name is a combination of initials of his first and last name, his family farm and the nearest village. Retired in 1986; company’s “senior adviser” still reportedly works tirelessly on his brand. Discount retailer now sells 9,500 items in 36 countries; prints catalog in 27 languages. Revenues up 7% to $27.4 billion in fiscal year 2008. Opened tenth store in China this February; planning to open first in Dominican Republic later this year. Three sons all work at the company. Thrifty entrepreneur flies economy class, frequents cheap restaurants and furnishes his home mostly with Ikea products.

Karl Albrecht

Rank: 6 Net Worth: $21.5 bil, Fortune:self made
Source:Aldi , Age:89, Country Of Citizenship:Germany,Residence:Mulheim an der Ruhr
Industry:Retail.

Karl Albrecht

Germany’s richest person owns discount supermarket giant Aldi Sud. Retailer faring well amid economic downturn; analysts expect its 2008 sales to be up 9.4% to $33.7 billion. Sales in the U.S. up estimated 20% last year to $7 billion. Plans to open 75 U.S. stores in 2009, including first in New York City. With younger brother, Theo, transformed their mother’s corner grocery store into Aldi after World War II. Brothers split ownership in 1961; Karl took the stores in southern Germany, plus the rights to the brand in the U.K., Australia and the U.S. Theo got northern Germany and the rest of Europe. Retired from daily operations. Fiercely private: little known about him other than that he apparently raises orchids and plays golf.

Mukesh Ambani
Rank: 7 Net Worth: $19.5 bil, Fortune: inherited and growing

Mukesh Ambani

Oversees Reliance Industries, India’s most valuable company by market cap despite stock falling 40% in past year. Merging his Reliance Petroleum with flagship Reliance Industries. As part of deal, will exercise right to buy back Chevron’s 5% stake in Reliance Petroleum at $1.20 per share—the same price at which he sold it 3 years ago. Today the stock trades for $1.80 a share. Increased stake in Reliance Industries in October; paid $3.4 billion to convert 120 million preferential warrants into shares. Reliance Petroleum refinery on India’s western coast began operating in December despite falling global demand and declining margins. Late father Dhirubhai founded Reliance and built it into a massive conglomerate. After he died Mukesh and his brother, Anil, ran the family business together for a brief time. But siblings feuded over control; mother eventually brokered split of assets. Brothers may be looking to bury hatchet; played joint hosts at mother’s recent 75th-birthday bash. Has yet to move into his 27-story home that he’s building at a reported cost of $1 billion. Ardent fan of Bollywood films. Wife, Nita, oversees school named after his father.

Lakshmi Mittal
Rank: 8 Net Worth: $19.3 bil, Fortune: inherited and growing

Lakshmi Mittal


Indian immigrant heads world’s largest steel company; ArcelorMittal was formed via hostile takeover 3 years ago. Stock in company makes up bulk of his fortune; shares at a 4-year low with steel prices down 75% since last summer. Company forced to pay heavy fines after a French antitrust investigation found 10 companies guilty of price-fixing in European steel markets. Arcelor posted $2.6 billion loss in most recent quarter; announced plans to slow acquisitions, cut capital expenditures, pay down debt. Started in family steel business in the 1970s, branched out on his own in 1994. Initially bought up steel mills on the cheap in Eastern Europe. Company bought 19.9% stake in Australia’s Macarthur Coal last year. Also owns pieces of Mumbai’s Indiabulls Group, London’s RAB Capital; owns stake in, sits on board of Goldman Sachs. Holds substantial cash; owns 12-bedroom mansion in London’s posh Kensington neighborhood.

Theo Albrecht
Rank: 9 Net Worth:Net Worth:$18.8 bil, Fortune:self made
Source:Aldi, Trader Joe’s, Age:87, Country Of Citizenship:Germany
Residence:Foehr, Industry:Retail

Theo Albrecht

Runs discount supermarket group Aldi Nord; firm holding up amid economic downturn. Sales expected to hit $31 billion in 2008. After World War II he and older brother Karl transformed their mother’s corner grocery into Aldi. Brothers split ownership in 1961; Karl took the stores in southern Germany, plus the rights to the brand in the U.K., Australia and the U.S. Theo got the northern Germany stores and the rest of Europe. Unable to operate Aldi stores in U.S., Theo developed discount food store Trader Joe’s; now has more than 320 U.S. stores. Also owns stake in Supervalu. Became a recluse after being kidnapped for 17 days in 1971; said to collect old typewriters; loves golf.

Amancio Ortega
Rank: 10, Net Worth: $18.3 bil ,Fortune: self made

Amancio Ortega

Railway worker’s son started as a gofer in a shirt store. With then-wife Rosalia Mera, also now a billionaire, started making dressing gowns and lingerie in their living room. Business became one of world’s most successful apparel manufacturers. Today Inditex has more than 4,000 stores in 71 countries. Sales: $12.3 billion. Ortega is chairman. Company exported its cheap chic Zara stores to 4 new markets last year: Ukraine, South Korea, Montenegro and Honduras. Stock up 1% in past 12 months, but fortune down because of weak euro. Also has personal investments in gas, tourism, banks and real estate. Owns properties in Madrid, Paris, London, Lisbon, plus a luxury hotel and apartment complex in Miami, a horse-jumping circuit, and an interest in a soccer league. Shuns neckties and fanfare. Daughter Marta works for Inditex; recent speculation suggests she is being groomed to eventually replace her father.

More on The World’s Billionaires

The Phrase; Hazara

The Phrase; Hazara

__________________________________________________________________________

ENGLISH EDITION

God is the creator of all the creatures of Universe and among these all creatures; Human beings have held position of Supreme Creature (Ashraf-ul-Makhloqat) since they can think and act.

God says in Quran:
و سخر لكم مافي السموات والارض
You are prompt as an authoritarian on the earth and sky.
و نفخت فيد من روحی
Oh! Human beings I have inserted my soul in your body.

Human Beings are the representatives of God over the earth; Mankind has all those bounded adjectival abilities that God has.

The boy who plays on the budha statues

The Boy who Plays on the Buddhas of Bamiyan

Human colonies on unlike races survive in different places of the world and each of those’ culture, voice communication and customs differ and colonies’ characters which recall their culture, language and tradition have high state of social and technological developments.

“Hazaras” have stayed one of the most deprived communities amongst the world tribes; consorting to groups of researchers 7000 years and 2300 years ago, they used to dwell in Mid-Asia regions and had confronted monumental civilizations but out of the blue they weren’t able to hike up their endowments as their culture and language were profaned by the adversaries and outsiders; afterwards they have stayed behind of their recognition.

There aren’t enough authentic data of Hazaras’ history since researchers don’t have reliable proofs for their aspects as you see two dates (7000 & 2300) were mentioned about Hazaras’ historic periods above which differ in high extent and thus aren’t legitimate.

Likewise many notions have been put across the phrase “Hazara”, an estimation saying almost 700 years ago in 14th century; group of people were named “Hazara” which is adverted to “Hamza-bin-Azrak” (حمزه بن آزرک).

Later on Rasheedin Caliphates, Muawiyah-ibn-abu-sufyan (معاویه) had developed a corrupt and anti-Islam government called “Umayyad Caliphate” which endured almost for 90 years and the last ruler was defeated by Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; decreed by Abbas-e-Saffah and Umayyad Caliphate was likewise extirpated, afterwards Abbas-e-Saffah demonstrated a similar government to Umayyad Caliphate which was named “Abbasid Caliphate” (Luxuriant Castles, drunkenness, …).
Abbas-e-Saffah was dreaded and scared of Abu-Muslim-Khurasani; since he was invulnerable to fear and intimidation, anyways Abbas-e-Saffah wiped Abu-Muslim-Khurasani out for his personal profits and his future conveniences.

Abbasid Caliphate lasted for 500 years; the first 100 years of the Dynasty were glowing and were highly enthusiastic, there is not doubt that great Islamic civilizations and elaborations are seen in this period but regrettably the other 400 years didn’t retain as first 100 years, with the order reversed this period persisted gloomy and dingy.

About 50 years later Abu-Muslim-Khurasani’s dissension in first 100 years of the Abbasid Caliphate; a person called “Hamza-bin-Azrak” who was from Khurasan, dissented and protested against depraved government of Abbasid Caliphate which is considered one of the most potent public protest in history of Sistan and the protest’s consequences caused Harun al-Rashid (The 5th and most famous Abbasid Caliph) to write a letter of peace offering to Hamza-bin-Azrak and he who desired justice and Islamic equality, declared himself Commander of the Faithful (Amīr al-Mu’minīn) and likewise subverted Harun al-Rashid of Caliphate.

Courage, bravery and gallantry of this public insurgent in wars, converted to myths and by the passage of time touched on as mythic tales in Hazaras’ narrations.

Likewise as his panoramas and thoughts were colored Shiat-form led upshot broadly and extensively in people of that period. This Campaign rooted in warps and woofs of people in that region for legion years; especially the simultaneous movement of the Shiite holy Sistan against the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs was formed and consecutive protests against injustice and Bani-Umayyad rulers and Bani-Abbas were joining the occurrence.

Some of the research workers and writers believe that the phrase “Hazara” has link with Hamza-bin Azrak.

According to some facts and rules of Dari grammar this theory is likely correct.

In Dari Language we make Adjectives of a noun (صفت نسبی) by adding “ی” at the end of the noun; Such as:

But if we see some of the adjective aren’t so; Such as:

The above adjectives seem to be as constructed as if “noun + گی”, as we know we didn’t and don’t have such rule in Dari grammar.
But the truth is that it isn’t “noun + گی”, it is “noun + ی” …

In past in Dari language many of the words had got “گ” at the end, Such as:

As you see the above adjectives are made according to the Dari grammar rule; noun (past)+ی

There are some other nice examples:

The word “غله and میوه” were “غلگ and میوگ” in the past which are pronounced and written “غلج and “میوج in Arabic, since we don’t have “گ” in Arabic and that’s why instead of “گ” we use “ج” and as well the plural is made according to the rule of Arabic grammar “noun+ات”, such as “میوجات and غلجات”.

The same case is with the Phrase “Hazara”:

The word “Azrag” in slang term in past is the same modern “Hazara” and the Phrases “Azrag and Azrak” (Hamza-bin-Azrak) are very similar, that’s why according to the sayings of some of the writers and researchers the phrase “Hazara” is attributed to Hamza-bin-Azrak.

Contributed by Hamid Hussain Salihy

Amazing facts, Do you know these?

Do you know these facts?
1. If you are right handed, you will tend to chew your food on your right side. If you are left handed, you will tend to chew your food on your left side.
2. If you stop getting thirsty, you need to drink more water. For when a human body is dehydrated, its thirst mechanism shuts off.
3. Chewing gum while peeling onions will keep you from crying.
4. Your tongue is germ free only if it is pink. If it is white there is a thin film of bacteria on it.
5. The Mercedes-Benz motto is ‘Das Beste oder Nichts’ meaning ‘the best or nothing’.
6. The Titanic was the first ship to use the SOS signal.
7. The pupil of the eye expands as much as 45 percent when a person looks at something pleasing.
8. The average person who stops smoking requires one hour less sleep at night.
9. Laughing lower levels of stress hormones and strengthen the immune system. Six-year-olds laugh an average of 300 times a day. Adults only laugh 15 to 100 times a day.
10. The roar that we hear when we place a seashell next to our ear is not the ocean, but rather the sound of blood surging through the veins in the ear.
11. Dalmatians are born without spots.
12. Bats always turn left when exiting a cave.
13. The ‘v’ in the name of a court case does not stand for ‘versus’, but for ‘and’ (in civil proceedings) or ‘against’ (in criminal proceedings).
14. Men’s shirts have the buttons on the right, but women’s shirts have the buttons on the left.
15. The owl is the only bird to drop its upper eyelid to wink. All other birds raise their lower eyelids.
16. The reason honey is so easy to digest is that it’s already been digested by a bee.
17. Roosters cannot crow if they cannot extend their necks.
18. The color blue has a calming effect. It causes the brain to release calming hormones.
19. Every time you sneeze some of your brain cells die.
20. Your left lung is smaller than your right lung to make room for your heart.
21. The verb “cleave” is the only English word with two synonyms which are antonyms of each other: adhere and separate.
22. When you blush, the lining of your stomach also turns red.
23. When hippos are upset, their sweat turns red.
24. The first Harley Davidson motorcycle was built in 1903, and used a tomato can for a carburetor.
25. The lion that roars in the MGM logo is named Volney.
26. Google is actually the common name for a number with a million zeros.
27. Switching letters is called spoonerism. For example, saying jag of Flapan, instead of flag of Japan.
28. It cost 7 million dollars to build the Titanic and 200 million to make a film about it.
29. The attachment of the human skin to muscles is what causes dimples
30. There are 1,792 steps to the top of the Eiffel Tower.
31. The sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is actually the sound of nitrogen gas bubbles bursting.
32. Human hair and fingernails continue to grow after death.
33. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.
34. The plastic things on the end of shoelaces are called aglets.
35. Most soccer players run 7 miles in a game.
36. The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye. It takes in oxygen directly from the air.
37. Every day 200 million couples make love, 400,000 babies are born, and 140,000 people die.
38. In most watch advertisements the time displayed on the watch is 10:10 because then the arms frame the brand of the watch (and make it look like it is smiling).
39. Colgate faced big obstacle marketing toothpaste in Spanish speaking countries. Colgate translates into the command “go hang yourself.”
40. The only 2 animals that can see behind themselves without turning its head are the rabbit and the parrot.
41. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.
42. The average person laughs 13 times a day.
43. Do you know the names of the three wise monkeys? They are: Mizaru (See no evil), Mikazaru (Hear no evil), and Mazaru (Speak no evil).
44. Women blink nearly twice as much as men.
45. German Shepherds bite humans more than any other breed of dog.
46. Large kangaroos cover more than 30 feet with each jump.
47. Whip makes a cracking sound because its tip moves faster than the speed of sound.
48. Two animal rights protesters were protesting at the cruelty of sending pigs to a slaughterhouse in Bonn. Suddenly the pigs, all two thousand of them, escaped through a broken fence and stampeded, trampling the two hapless protesters to death.
49. If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle; if the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle; if the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural cause.
The human heart creates enough pressure while pumping to squirt blood 30 feet

5 Ways to Improve YOUR English without even Trying! for people who speak English as a second language

Learning a second language can be a very stressful and arduous task if you let it. Somehow, the words you learn in the books don’t seem to apply very well to real life situations. Those small and seemingly un-important elements the show a person to be in command of not only the language, but the culture of the people who speak it cannot be adequately expressed by words on paper.

So, how do you learn these little secrets of mastering the ability to articulate yourself in another language?

Here are 5 proven techniques that will help you improve your English without even trying, if you are learning to speak English as a second language. Do they really work? Yes. I’ve tried them myself as I’ve had opportunity to live somewhere where English wasn’t the primary language. I found it to be a fun, exciting, and painless way to learn both the language and the culture. The culture is simply learning the way the natives express their own words. The genuine accent, facial expressions, hand gestures, sighs, moans, groans, laughter, smirks, and other things that go along with everyday conversation.

Regardless of how extensive or not your vocabulary is, if you master the ability to “sound” like you know the language and can speak it, people will be more than generous to assist you.

1. Watch Movies!

Watching movies is always a fun thing to do. In order to get the most out of your movie watching experience, if your vocabulary is limited, watch a movie in English that you are very familiar with in your own language so you always know what’s going on. Try not to translate as you go because you lose blocks of conversation this way. Instead, watch the picture and listen. Hear all the words, but determine what’s going on by the pictures you see and the words you’re hearing that you already know. Believe it or not, other words will sink in too, and so will the accent and everything else that went with what you saw and heard.

As your vocabulary grows, expand your movie selections to other movies you’d like to see but are only available in English. Try to be able to see the film more than once if possible.

According to the location and type of film you intend to view, you will be able to experience different accents, and other cultural expressions of the English language. Pick and choose the things that you think will suit you best. If it doesn’t work out, pick and try something else! Have fun with yourself and your efforts.

2. Watch Soap Operas

The place where extreme expression and limited vocabulary meet! This is such a fascinating way to learn a foreign language. Every accessory that goes with the expression of a word is demonstrated on a soap opera. “Outrage” expressed with a word, facial expression or two, and perhaps even a subsequent face slap, all of that being understandable in any language. “Love”, another universal subject, or violence, good versus evil can all be discerned quickly and easily on a soap opera. Plus, soap operas are naturally designed to allow anyone just tuning in to pick up the story quickly. The characters are easily loveable and deliciously “hate-able” so you turn to it again and again to see what’s going on, and not only improve your English each time, but reinforce what you’ve already learned.

3. Read the Comics/Funny Papers

Very non-stressful! Pictures with words, or words with pictures, however you want to look at it, it’s a great way to learn! For each thought presented there are words that match a picture, and vice versa. It doesn’t matter if you read comic books, or the comics in the Sunday newspaper, read whatever will make you laugh and cause you to enjoy learning at the same time.

4. Read Children’s books

If you know any little kids between the ages of 5-8, try reading one of their books to them. Usually little kids know their favorite books by heart, so if you stumble a little, they’ll be able to help you.

If you enjoy this method of improving your English, and you find yourself to be pretty good at it, then try reading a few Dr. Seuss books. The rhyming will challenge you, but once you master it, your pronunciation of English, and your delivery will have been considerably refined and improved.

5. Take a service job like waiter or waitress; bartender, or sales person.

This type of job can be done if you have a decent vocabulary of verbs, and know how to say “I, we, she, he, they”, etc. The only other thing necessary is a working vocabulary of things relevant to your specific tasks and goals.

For example, as a breakfast waitress, you want to be able to ask if they want their eggs, “scrambled or fried”, if they want “more coffee”, if everything is “alright”, do they want “anything else”, and the total of their bill in their own language!

If you sell real estate, you’ll want to incorporate words like “mortgage, loan, co-sign, 30 year fixed”, etc.

If you sell shoes, you need words like “how does that feel”, are they “too tight, too loose, to short in the toe, to big”, etc.

The longer you work at your job, the more your working vocabulary will improve.

6. Learn these two sentences and you’ll be set for life . . . seriously!

“How do you say (blank)”, in English (Spanish, French, etc.), and “What is that called?” (Point if you have to, and smile too). Smiling is a universal language. Once I learned how to ask these two questions, I was on my way to being conversant in the language of my choice!

I could use my limited vocabulary to ask the question and then when I got my answer I would repeat it a few times to make sure I was saying it correctly, and “BAM” I had a new vocabulary word. And, because I asked my question to the best of my ability in the native tongue, the natives realized my sincere desire to learn, and helped me!

7. What happens if you make a mistake?

Nothing. The world won’t come to an end, and you haven’t embarrassed yourself to the point where you can’t show your face again. Just apologize if that’s what’s called for, or laugh at yourself, make the correction, and count it as a learning experience.

Once I was in a restaurant and I wanted to ask the waiter for a “to go” box, however, I was speaking to my kids in English, and trying to think of what I wanted to ask for in Spanish, and I promptly and incorrectly asked him for a “house to go”. He looked at me kind of funny, but he was very courteous, and didn’t laugh until I laughed.

I’ve committed other language faux pas as well over the years, all of which have been a learning experience, and if given enough time, will become a humorous story as well.

Kim Rogers has lived and worked in the Caribbean, Denmark, and along the Mexican Border. Kim has developed 101 Words that will make You Sound Smarter Right Away! To read more got to http://www.soundsmarternow.com

برخورداري از يك ويژگي ژنتيكي بسيار نادر، پسربچه‌ سه ساله

يك پسر بچه سه ساله به دليل برخورداري از يك صفت ژنتيكي بسيار نادر از چنان قدرتي برخوردار شده كه عنوان «سوپر پسر» را به خود اختصاص داده است.

لیام در هنگام تولد دچار مشکلات زیادی از نظر پزشکی بود . او دارای یک سوراخ کوچک در دیواره فلب خود به همراه اگزما بر روی بدن و بزگی کلیه ها و عدم تحمل به لاکتوز بود . این کودک دارای شکمی سخت بود و در طی روز بارها دچار استفراغ می گردید.

لیام به سرعت بهبود یافت اما نکته ای که والدین او را نگران می کرد اشتهای زیاد این کودک بود . پدرش می گوید او واقعا همیشه گرسنه است .  در واقع هر ساعت احتیاج به تغذیه دارد . مادرش می گوید لیام شش برابر دیگران غذا می خورد !

با گذشت زمان اشتهای کودک نه تنها کاهش نیافت بلکه بیشتر هم شد و نکته مهم و جالب این بود که تمام مواد غذایی در بدن این کودک به ماهیچه تبدیل می شد . در واقع تنها نقطه ای از بدن لیام که دارای چربی است گونه های او است . پزشکان می گویند  متابوليسم بدن این کودک   بسیار بالا است .

لیام در نوزده ماهگی می توانست بر روی دستهای خود شنا برود . و عضلات شکمی او آنچنان تنومند بود که می توانست باعث حسادت هر ورزشکار زیبایی اندام گردد.

پدرش می گوید : ” شما وقتى چنین قدرتی داشته باشید می توانید دنيا را دستخوش تغییر کنید .

دكتر لارسون می گوید : ”  بله این اتفاق شدنی است  براى اينكه او خيلى قوى است شما وقتى كه آن نيروى باورنكردنى را در يك بچه می بینید  آنگاه برای آینده چيزهاى خيلى بيشتر را از او توقع خواهید داشت .  “اين توانايي ژنتيكي خاص به اين پسر بچه كوچك  امكان مي‌دهد كه قدرت عضلاني فوق‌العاده‌اي داشته باشد، به طوري كه مي‌تواند به راحتي اثاثيه و لوازم سنگين را جابه‌جا كند.

محققان علت اين قدرت فوق‌العاده و استثنايي را يك حالت ژنتيكي نادر اعلام كرده‌اند. آنها مي‌گويند ليام احتمالا به حالتي موسوم به «هايپرتراپي ماهيچه‌اي مربوط به ميد ستاتين» دچار است.

در اين وضعيت بدن فرد مقدار بسيار اندكي چربي دارد و در عوض رشته‌هاي ماهيچه‌يي در بدن وي بسيار بزرگ مي‌شوند و اين وضعيت قدرت واقعي و فوق‌العاده‌اي به فرد مي‌دهد.                                                                  اولين بار اين پديده در يك پسر بچه خردسال آلماني در سال ۲۰۰۰ مشاهده شد. ليما ماهيچه‌هاي بسيار قدرتمندي دارد، اما ظاهر وي درست شبيه به يك كودك طبيعي است .

در واقع جثه او كمي از سن خود كوچكتر، اما قدرتش بسيار بيشتر است.

ليام ناچار است به دليل متابوليسم سريع در بدنش دائم غذا بخورد، يعني حداقل بايد در روز شش وعده غذا بخورد تا دچار كمبود كالري نشود.

ليام به دليل قدرت زياد اگر از بلندي بيافتد، آسيبي نمي‌بيند.
پژوهشگران معتقدند با بررسي و شبيه سازي اين حالت مي‌تواند بسياري از بيماريها را معالجه كنند.

پدر ليام می گوید آرزو دارم که رو زی او براى تیم محبوب من یعنی تیم دانشگاه ميشيگان تيم فوتبال بازى كند.

گلوله‌اي كه ۴۲ سال درون سر يك زن جا خوش كرده بود

بعد از گذشت ۴۲ سال از ورود يك گلوله به داخل سر يك زن، پزشكان چيني موفق شدند آن را با موفقيت كامل از داخل سر اين زن بيرون بياورند!

به نقل از فرانس پرس ،  رسانه‌هاي چيني اعلام كردند كه پزشكان در جنوب‌غرب چين موفق شدند يك گلوله را كه به مدت چند دهه در داخل سر يك زن قرار داشت را با موفقيت از سر وي خارج كنند.

اين در حاليست كه اين زن «هي ونينگ» ۶۵ ساله است، در مصاحبه‌اي با رسانه‌هاي دولتي چين افزود: من طي اين ۴۲ سال هيچ احساس دردي نداشتم و تنها زماني كه يك روز براي غذا خوردن دچار مشكل شدم و سردرد به سراغم آمد، به پزشك مراجعه كرده و آن‌ها با عكسبرداري از سرم متوجه وجود يك شي خارجي درون غشاي بيروني مغزم شدند.
پزشكان در بيمارستان «چونگ گينگ» در جنوب‌غرب اين كشور پس از جراحي سر اين زن موفق شدند يك گلوله ۲/۵ سانتيمتري را از داخل سر وي بيرون آورند.

اين زن ۶۵ ساله در ادامه خاطر نشان كرد: احتمال مي‌دهم حين درگيري‌هاي مسلحانه‌اي كه در انقلاب فرهنگي بين سال‌هاي ۱۹۶۶ ميلادي تا ۱۹۷۶ ميلادي در كشور روي داد، اين گلوله از اسلحه يك شورشي يا مامور پليس شليك شده و وارد سر من شده باشد.

وي ادامه داد: در همان سال من به پزشك مراجعه كردم، اما آن‌ها تنها گفتند كه تنها يك زخمي بر روي سرم است و از عكسبرداري امتناع كردند. با اين حال، هم اكنون بسيار خوشحالم كه طي اين چهار دهه زنده مانده‌ام و از شر اين گلوله كوچك داخل مغزم خلاص شدم.

پیش از این نیز یک مادر بزرگ چینی که در طول جنگ جهانی دوم یک گلوله نظامیان ژاپنی در مغز او فرو رفته بود تحت عمل جراحی قرار گرفته بود  . این مادر بزرگ ۷۷ ساله از ۱۳ سالگی این گلوله و متعاقبا درد همراه آن را در سرش محفوظ نگه داشت. تا اینکه بالاخره پس از جراحی موفقیت آمیز از شر این گلوله و سردرد ناشی از آن رهایی پیدا کرد.