Monthly Archives: August 2009

The best of Men – Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H

.:::Vote Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H:::.

Welcome to Best of Men Vote !!!
The BestofMen.org is pleased to announce that the following 10 candidates have been nominated for the final round of the Best of Men of All times. The listing is in alphabetical order, and visitors can vote for any one of them as the Best of Men. Winner and results will be announced on 02/02/2010. Voters may find a breif history of the candidates in the Profile section.

As you can see our God's last messenger (Prophet Mohammad P.B.U.H) is listed there too.

So, Vote him and prove that Muslims still believe on him and love him.
Click here to visit the website and vote

The aims of Dr. R .Bashardost

The aims of Dr. R .Bashardost the Ex planning minister and parliament independent candidate of Kabul

1- Summoning of ministers for interrogation from their works results.
2- Non – existence confidence vote to lazy, non – professional and profiteer ministers.
3-Amputation of exorbitant salaries of foreign advisers, west ran and martial princes.
4- In crease of civilians and military staff’s salaries.
5- Increase of convinced salaries.
6- Cleaning of Governmental a demonstrations from allayed, in Justice and corruption.
7- Cleaning of national army and national police from non – professional members.
8- Construction of schools , religious schools, preparation of table , chair , book , scholarship , dormitory for students and higher education’s learners .
9- Construction of schools, religions schools, preparation of table, chair, book, scholarship, dormitory for students and higher education learners.
10- Preparation of abode malice available of work and educational possibilities for refugees.
11- Distribution of land for ones bales, Marty’s families Teachers, officials, refugees and deprived.
12- Obtaining of usurped lands of Governmental and personal again.
13- Trail of embezzlement public properties responsible.
14- Giving the first right to inner reconstruction’s companies and projects.
15- Dis-solving of economic criminal –N-G-O.
16- giving the first right in recruitment of Afghan workers and tradesmen.
17- serious making of dams reserve of water and watering of cultivation and generation of power.
18- Support strengthening of industries and internal productions.
19- Supporting of private sector for economic development .
20- Serious control of prices trues the health competition.
21- Expansion and development of economic, social and cultural symmetrical.
22- Demolishing of heavy direct and indirect taxes.
23- Survey, control and serious watching on the international community aids.
24- Close up the forgone prisons in Afghanistan.
25- Co-operation with international community in combat against terrorism and unsecurity.
26- Serious opposition with each kind of transaction with oppressors.
27- Forgiven policy appoint anent on the basis of national interests.
28- Immediate construction of equipped, modern clinic and hospitals.
29- Cleaning of Governmental administrations serum smugglers of narcotic materials and destroying of cultivation of poppy.
30- Immediate preparation of drinkable water and power.
31- Immediate reconstruction of roads, and public transportation.
32- Immediate programmed of canalize and regular cleanness of city from impurities.

Qazi Faez Isa Sworn in as Chief Justice Balochistan

Qazi Faez Isa, son of Qazi Muhammad Isa, has sworn in as Chief Justice Balochistan. He is the firstever Hazara to serve as Cheif Justice of Balochistan High Court.
qazi-faez-isa
Late Qazi Muhammad Isa was a prominent leader of Pakistan Movement and close friend of Quid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He sanctioned Voice of Hazaragi in Radio Pakistan in 1975. Qazi Muhammad Isa (Marhoom) raised the voice of deprived Hazaras of Independent Hazarajat in UN for the first time in 1970s and succeeded in getting Hazara delegation in the UN represented by Tanzeem Nasle Nau Hazara Mughul.

Kaleem Umer, cousin of Qazi Faez, writes in Daily Times that the Isa Famiy belonged to Hazaras of Kandhar, who are predominantely Sunni.

The family moved to present Pakistan in 1880s when the tyrant ruler Abdul Rahman imposed a genocidal war against Hazaras killing about 60% of the total population.

Qazi Faez is a senior lawyer. He was born in 1959 in Quetta. He completed his primary and secondary education from the Quetta Grammar School. He did his BA Honours in Law and later got the degree of Bar-at-Law from London. He has written several books.

Ashraf Jahangir Qazi is the cousin of Qazi Faez. He served as the Ambassador of Pakistan in the United States and India. Currently he is the UN Secretary General’s Special Representative for Sudan.

NOTE: Daily Jang Quetta Edition in its publication of August 06 has written Qazi Faez as a Pushtoon. (See Baqia Number 53)

It is to mention that Hazaras in Pakistan live in Quetta, Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawab Shah, Sangar, Khair Pur, Zhob, Muslim Bagh, Mach, Loraralai, Duki, Sinjavi, Harnae Marvar, Dagari and in some other cities.

Qazi Faez Isa – Barrister and advocate of the Supreme Court

Qazi Faez Isa is the son of Qazi Mohammad Isa, the foremost freedom fighter from Balochistan and a close associate of the Quaid, whose efforts were chiefly responsible for Balochistan joining Pakistan.
qazi-faez-isa
Q: Would you say that the emergency is tantamount to martial law?

A: This emergency has no legal or constitutional basis. This is something hybrid, which the constitution does not allow or permit. You could call it martial law or any name you want to give it. In other words, it is no law at all; you may call it the law of the jungle.

Q: What are the legal ramifications of the new Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO)?

A: The PCO states that the constitution is held in abeyance. The constitution does not provide for it, the constitution does not envisage a provisional constitutional order. It has zero legal or constitutional sanctity.

We must understand the special nature of the constitution. The constitution declares that each and every citizen of Pakistan, and every person within Pakistan, even if he is a foreigner, has to abide by the constitution of Pakistan. You cannot hold the constitution in abeyance. It defeats the purpose of a constitution. The constitution is not a simple law, it is the paramount law. Article 6 of the constitution says that anybody who tries to abrogate it by force of arms, or otherwise, or assists in its abrogation, commits high treason.

Q: What, in your view, are the legal or ethical limits, if any, of judicial activism?

A: The 1973 constitution is very crucial for the survival of the country. It is the only constitutional document ever to have been promulgated unanimously by each and every member of the National Assembly. Out of 200, 196 voted in favour of it. There were four abstentions, not a single vote of dissent against the passing of the constitution in 1973. In the document, the framers of the constitution provided Article 184, which also stipulated the boundaries of judicial activism. The boundaries are, firstly, that the court can take up only a matter of public importance, and secondly, one that pertains to fundamental rights. So if a wholescale infringement of fundamental rights is taking place, Article 184 enables the Supreme Court to act. This is, of course, in the larger interest of the people. For instance, if a dam that is providing water to say 10,000, or even 1,000 people, is being polluted, their fundamental rights are being violated. They may not have the resources to initiate a case against the violators, but the court can take up the matter. So it is a wonderful device. It’s good for the poorer segments of society, it protects them and it supports them – and it is very much a matter of fundamental rights. Now if I have a personal dispute with somebody, this doesn’t come into the picture at all. So, the test is fundamental rights and public importance. If the Supreme Court takes notice of a matter which does not fall within these two conditions then it can be said to be acting beyond its jurisdiction.

Q: The parameters of judicial activism set by the constitution notwithstanding, there has been a debate in certain quarters about some of the recent rulings of the Supreme Court under Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry, namely the release of the Lal Masjid militants and the order to the authorities to pay blood money to the families of those killed in the operation on the masjid. In light of the extraordinary circumstances prevailing in the country, how wise were these decisions? Is there any provision for when the law can be modified in the larger public interest?

A: The chief justice did not pass any orders in the matter of Lal Masjid that you are referring to. Instead, orders were passed by Justice Nawaz Abbasi and Justice Javed Buttar, who, incidentally, were among the first to have been offered the oath under the PCO and who took the oath under the PCO. Furthermore, what I have been able to understand of the Lal Masjid scenario, it’s the government itself which has made it into a large issue. The government claims it is committed against terrorism, but what does the federal minister for religious affairs say? He says in the media that the two brothers [Maulanas Ghazi and Aziz] had arms in their cars, but he intervened and got them off. Isn’t he supporting terrorists?

There are many laws to arrest somebody, there are anti-terrorism laws, anti-subversion laws and others. What the courts say is to please proceed according to these laws. If people are terrorists, lodge an FIR, arrest them, there is a whole mechanism provided. You can’t just pick up a person and keep him incommunicado for years. That becomes a missing persons case. The Supreme Court has never said to release people who are guilty of terrorism or even suspects in terrorism cases. The court says to process them according to law or make laws if the [existing ones] are deficient. To simply pick up people and detain them, however, is unconstitutional. The courts have no option but to release such persons – a person is, after all, innocent until proven guilty.

Everything the Supreme Court did was according to the law and constitution. It cannot be accused of doing something for its personal interest. On the other hand, on the very same day that the proclamation of emergency was issued, Major General Arshad Waheed announced that the military had released 25 militants in exchange for 213 army officers whom the militants had taken captive. So who is releasing these people? Had the court said to release them? Let’s put matters in their true perspective.

Q: In his address to the nation following the proclamation of emergency, General Musharraf spoke about the arrests of various law enforcement personnel and of the collision course the judiciary had chosen to embark on vis à vis the executive, which had “paralysed the state machinery and demoralised the law enforcement agencies.” How would you respond?

A: The Supreme Court has said a number of times that if the government does what it is required to do, there would be no need for it to take any action. The Supreme Court will be more than happy not to do anything. It is only when the government is so thoroughly incompetent that the Supreme Court has to initiate action in all matters, in environmental matters, in building matters – even in traffic matters in Karachi. There is so much corruption everywhere. The Supreme Court has only been intervening because its jurisdiction has been invoked, under Article 184, in matters of public importance affecting fundamental rights. They have never acted beyond this domain. And the general public has been very pleased whenever the Supreme Court has acted. The poorest of the poor support the actions of the Supreme Court.

You must also realise that in this parliament, there is no opposition. In fact, there is no parliament. These parliamentarians are a burden on the exchequer, and you and I are paying for them. We have the largest cabinet in the world. What it does, we don’t know. There are no question and answer sessions, matters are not decided in the parliament, nothing is debated. I think the Supreme Court played a very valuable role because without it there would have been anarchy on the streets and probably much worse. So the Supreme Court offers people a ray of hope.

Q: Do you believe the emergency was entirely triggered by the judgement of the bench hearing the case for General Musharraf’s election to the presidency?

A: A request was made from the lawyers side that a full court should hear the matter. You will recollect that before this judgment, there was another petition which was heard by a nine-member bench. Out of these, four of the judges said that the president could not file his nomination papers. The others dismissed the petition on a technicality saying that the person who had filed it was not an aggrieved person. In the second constitution of the bench, those gentlemen who had decided against Musharraf said that since they had already decided the matter, their conscience would not permit them to be part of this bench. So the new bench was probably the most sympathetic bench available that the president could get. You will recollect that it was headed by Justice Javed Iqbal, who, when the chief justice was removed, was made the acting chief justice by no less a person than General Musharraf himself. So where is there cause for grievance? If you’re not happy even with those who are perceived to be supporting you, does that mean you should get your own court?

Q: Presidential aspirant Justice Wajihuddin made some observations recently. He said that those who were to benefit from the NRO – quite pointedly the PPP – were in collusion with President Musharraf. He also pointed out that the new chief justice of the Supreme Court, Abdul Hameed Dogar, had been elevated to the Sindh High Court by the PPP government, the implication being that his elevation was certainly not anathema to the PPP. Do you agree?

A: I don’t know if Justice Wajihuddin has made these statements. I don’t want to comment upon conjecture and surmises.

Q:Justice Javed Iqbal went on record to state that Aitzaz Ahsan, as counsel for Justice Wajihuddin Ahmed, the plaintiff in the case, had prolonged the proceedings unnecessarily. He maintained that considering Aitzaz’s “political affiliations, he did not deploy what could have been a devastating argument against Musharraf’s nomination papers.” Do you concur with this allegation?

A: I would say that Aitzaz Ahsan is a reputable counsel. I think these comments are certainly not justified.

To say that Aitzaz, because he is affiliated with the Peoples Party, intentionally mishandled the case, is absolutely untrue. We all know that Benazir Bhutto is not happy with Aitzaz Ahsan, so the last person that she would be listening to or vice versa, would be Aitzaz Ahsan.

Q:What happens now to all the rulings that had been made by the Supreme Court prior to the proclamation of emergency? Can they be overturned?

A: Each and every judgment of the Supreme Court stands unless it is overruled.

Q:Can it be overruled by the current bench of the Supreme Court?

A: There is only one Supreme Court, there is no new Supreme Court. Anybody who takes oath under the PCO is violating the constitution and thus cannot be accepted or recognised as a judge.

Q:That notwithstanding, this is not the first PCO, and whatever their legitimate position, the courts have continued to function…

A: There is one big difference this time… this has never happened before. In all the earlier instances the Supreme Court found some fig leaf to justify military intervention by inventing the doctrine of necessity or by other means. The difference this time is that on the day of the proclamation of emergency and the issuance of the PCO, a seven-member bench of the Supreme Court struck down the PCO. The Supreme Court held, “The order states, no judge of the Supreme Court or the High Courts including chief justices shall take oath under PCOs or any other constitutional step. Any further appointment of the chief justice of Pakistan and the judges of the Supreme Court and chief justices of High Courts and judges of provinces under the new development shall be unlawful and without jurisdiction.” So there is an order operating. And what are the consequences of violating this order? Article 190 of the constitution stipulates that all executive and judicial authorities in Pakistan shall act in aid of the Supreme Court. So it is a binding order on each and every one of us. There is no way out of this order now. The fundamental difference this time is that the Supreme Court immediately convened and seven judges, the chief justice and the senior-most judges of the Supreme Court, including the second and the third, Justice Rana Bhagwandas and Justice Javed Iqbal, passed this order. So it carries a lot of weight. The judges went on to state, and this is very interesting, “The chief of army staff, corp commanders, staff officers, and all concerned of civil and military authorities are hereby restrained from acting on the PCO.” I think this concludes the matter and there is no fig leaf this time.

Q:What happens to all the judges who refused to take oath? Do they just go home?

A: No, they continue to be judges under the constitution and law.

Q:The courts will function without them. So will it not be just in name – unless the PCO is rescinded?

A: The only courts in Pakistan that can function are under those judges who took an oath under the 1973 constitution. All those who were judges on November 3, continue to be judges. In the constitution of Pakistan, there are only three ways a High Court or Supreme Court judge can be removed. One, if he dies in office. Second, if he resigns his office. Third, if the supreme judicial council removes him. The framers of the constitution, and this happens everywhere in the world, knew that you must provide security to a judge of the Supreme Court because he would be deciding sensitive matters and at times when you have powerful parties arrayed against you, for example the government or the president, you want to ensure that the judge is not going to be worried about his job. So there is absolute security of tenure. A Supreme Court or High Court judge cannot be removed at all. The minute you do that you fall foul of Article 6 and you are guilty of high treason. So Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry remains chief justice, and there is no other. Sabihuddin Ahmed is chief justice of the Sindh High Court. It is as simple as that, it’s black and white.

Q:How do you see the future of the judiciary?

A: The future couldn’t be bleaker. You can’t have democracy without an independent judiciary, you can’t have democracy without an independent media. Each and every officer of the armed forces and the civil bureaucracy, each and every member of parliament, should be asked about the oath they took under the constitution. Schedule 3 prescribes an oath of office for every one of them, as it does for the president of Pakistan and the prime minister. Under this oath they all swear to preserve and protect the constitution. So now each member of parliament, each federal minister, each provincial minister, each member of provincial assembly, the chairman of the Senate, each one is violating their oath of office. So either they don’t have the consciousness, or the conscience. Have they not read the oath that they took? Are they protecting the constitution when they go by this order which says that the constitution is held in abeyance?

Q:So is there going to be no fight-back by the legal fraternity?

A: The legal community is not entering the courts at this time.

Q:Doesn’t that affect all those whose cases desperately need to be heard?

A: Would you want a case to be heard by a person who has now sworn – and this is very important – not to challenge or to entertain any challenge against the proclamation of emergency or the PCO. Both these devices have been used to take away your fundamental rights. So if they decide to close, for instance Newsline, for printing this interview, what is your recourse? None. Ordinarily you would have gone to the High Court and filed a petition under Article 199, because you could say your fundamental rights had been violated. What will you do today? Nothing. The courts have sworn to uphold the proclamation of the PCO, which says that fundamental rights are out of the window. I know people will suffer, but they will suffer far more, [if they become party to this]. You have to prevent the disease from spreading.

Q:So the fight-back is essentially by an act of omission…

A: I don’t know where the constitution of Pakistan says that only the legal community is obligated to uphold the constitution. It is each and every one’s duty – not just that of civil society, but of every individual, including those in the military.

As for the lawyers, in one day, 500 lawyers were arrested. This is a world record. Three hundred and forty-four FIRs were lodged in Lahore, in just one police station. And lawyers have been charged with all sorts of offences. They were in court, the police barged in, hit them with batons, tear-gassed them and then lodged FIRs against them.

So the entire leadership of the lawyers has been incarcerated, including the second, third and fourth tiers. Still they are brave souls, they are coming out, and are paying perhaps the biggest price. Apart from the assaults on them, if they don’t appear in court, nobody is going to pay them. And it is not as though they will derive any personal benefit from their battle. This battle they are fighting is for Pakistan.

Q:Do you think the current status-quo will remain?

A: Our faith teaches us patience – one should never give up hope and must speak up against tyranny. But the reality is that a single phone call from Condoleezza Rice ensured that, earlier, no emergency was declared. I’m sure if President Bush, who pretends to want democracy in Pakistan, was to make a phone call, things could be immediately reversed. Unfortunately today, the people of Pakistan are not determining the events that are taking place in Pakistan, it is America who decides what happens in Pakistan.

And now the American nation has to, for once and for all, decide, do they stand by the people of Pakistan or do they stand by one individual?

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost – Afghanistan Presidential Candidate

Ramazan Bashardost

Dr. Ramazan Bashardost

Procrastination

What is Procrastination?

Procrastination is putting off or avoiding doing something that must be done. It is natural to procrastinate occasionally. However, excessive procrastination can result in guilt feelings about not doing a task when it should be done. It can also cause anxiety since the task still needs to be done. Further, excessive procrastination can cause poor performance if the task is completed without sufficient time to do it well. In short, excessive procrastination can interfere with school and personal success.

Why Do Students Procrastinate?

There are many reasons why students procrastinate. Here are the most common reasons:
Procrastination, Stop Sign

1. Perfectionism. A student’s standard of performance may be so high for a task that it does not seem possible to meet that standard.
2. Fear of Failure. A student may lack confidence and fear that he/she will be unable to accomplish a task successfully.
3. Confusion. A student may be unsure about how to start a task or how it should be completed.
4. Task Difficulty. A student may lack the skills and abilities needed to accomplish a task.
5. Poor Motivation. A student may have little or no interest in completing a task because he/she finds the task boring or lacking in relevance.
6. Difficulty Concentrating. A student may have too many things around that distract him/her from doing a task.
7. Task Unpleasantness. A student may dislike doing what a task requires.
8. Lack of Priorities. A student may have little or no sense about which tasks are most important to do.

How Do I Know if I Procrastinate Excessively?

You procrastinate excessively if you agree with five or more of the following statements:

1. I often put off starting a task I find difficult
2. I often give up on a task as soon as I start to find it difficult.
3. I often wonder why I should be doing a task.
4. I often have difficulty getting started on a task.
5. I often try to do so many tasks at once that I cannot do any of them.
6. I often put off a task in which I have little or no interest.
7. I often try to come up with reasons to do something other than a task I have to do.
8. I often ignore a task when I am not certain about how to start it or complete it.
9. I often start a task but stop before completing it.
10. I often find myself thinking that if I ignore a task, it will go away.
11. I often cannot decide which of a number of tasks I should complete first.
12. I often find my mind wandering to things other that the task on which I am trying to work.

What Can I Do About Excessive Procrastination?

Here are some things you can do to control excessive procrastination.
Procrastination, Green Light

1. Motivate yourself to work on a task with thoughts such as “There is no time like the present,” or “Nobody’s perfect.”
2. Prioritize the tasks you have to do.
3. Commit yourself to completing a task once started.
4. Reward yourself whenever you complete a task.
5. Work on tasks at the times you work best.
6. Break large tasks into small manageable parts.
7. Work on tasks as part of a study group.
8. Get help from teachers and other students when you find a task difficult.
9. Make a schedule of the tasks you have to do and stick to it.
10. Eliminate distractions that interfere with working on tasks.
11. Set reasonable standards that you can meet for a task.
12. Take breaks when working on a task so that you do not wear down.
13. Work on difficult and/or unpleasant tasks first.
14. Work on a task you find easier after you complete a difficult task.
15. Find a good place to work on tasks.

Above all, think positively and get going. Once you are into a task, you will probably find that it is more interesting than you thought it would be and not as difficult as you feared. You will feel increasingly relieved as you work toward its accomplishment and will come to look forward to the feeling of satisfaction you will experience when you have completed the task.

Study Skills – Study Habits

The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students
Study Habits, Studying

Successful students have good study habits. They apply these habits to all of their classes. Read about each study habit. Work to develop any study habit you do not have.

Successful students:

1. Try not to do too much studying at one time.

If you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy.
2. Plan specific times for studying.

Study time is any time you are doing something related to schoolwork. It can be completing assigned reading, working on a paper or project, or studying for a test. Schedule specific times throughout the week for your study time.
3. Try to study at the same times each day.

Studying at the same times each day establishes a routine that becomes a regular part of your life, just like sleeping and eating. When a scheduled study time comes up during the day, you will be mentally prepared to begin studying.
4. Set specific goals for their study times.

Goals will help you stay focused and monitor your progress. Simply sitting down to study has little value. You must be very clear about what you want to accomplish during your study times.
5. Start studying when planned.

You may delay starting your studying because you don’t like an assignment or think it is too hard. A delay in studying is called “procrastination.” If you procrastinate for any reason, you will find it difficult to get everything done when you need to. You may rush to make up the time you wasted getting started, resulting in careless work and errors.
6. Study Habits, Clipboard Checklist Work on the assignment they find most difficult first.

Your most difficult assignment will require the most effort. Start with your most difficult assignment since this is when you have the most mental energy.
7. Review their notes before beginning an assignment.

Reviewing your notes can help you make sure you are doing an assignment correctly. Also, your notes may include information that will help you complete an assignment.
8. Tell their friends not to call them during their study times.

Two study problems can occur if your friends call you during your study times. First, your work is interrupted. It is not that easy to get back to what you were doing. Second, your friends may talk about things that will distract you from what you need to do. Here’s a simple idea – turn off your cell phone during your study times.
9. Call another student when they have difficulty with an assignment.

This is a case where “two heads may be better than one.”
10. Review their schoolwork over the weekend.

Yes, weekends should be fun time. But there is also time to do some review. This will help you be ready to go on Monday morning when another school week begins.

These ten study habits can help you throughout your education. Make sure they are your study habits.

Study skills – Preparing to Study

Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place

You need a good study place to be prepared to study. You should be able to answer YES to all of the following questions:
Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place, Books

1. Is my Study Place available to me whenever I need it?

Your Study Place does you little good if you cannot use it when you need it. If you are using a Study Place that you must share with others for any reason, work out a schedule so that you know when you can use it.

2. Is my Study Place free from interruptions?

It is important to have uninterrupted study time. You may have to hang a DO NOT DISTURB sign on the door or take the phone off the hook.

3. Is my Study Place free from distractions?

Research shows that most students study best in a quiet environment. If you find that playing a stereo or TV improves your mood, keep the volume low.

4. Does my Study Place contain all the study materials I need?

Be sure your Study Place includes reference sources and supplies such as pens and pencils, paper, ruler, calculator, and whatever else you might need. If you use a computer for your schoolwork, it should be in your Study Place .

5. Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place, Desk and Computer Does my Study Space contain a large enough desk or table?

While working on an assignment or studying for a test, use a desk or table that is large enough to hold everything you need. Allow enough room for writing and try to avoid clutter.

6. Does my Study Place have enough storage space?

You need enough room to store your study materials. Be sure you have enough storage space to allow you to keep your desktop or other work surface clear of unnecessary materials that can get in the way.

7. Does my Study Place have a comfortable chair?

A chair that is not comfortable can cause discomfort or pain that will interfere with your studying. A chair that is too comfortable might make you sleepy. Select a chair in which you can sit for long periods while maintaining your attention.

8. Does my Study Place have enough light?

The amount of light you need depends on what you are doing. The important thing is that you can clearly see what you need to see without any strain or discomfort.

9. Does my Study Place have a comfortable temperature?

If your Study Place is too warm, you might become sleepy. If it is too cold, your thinking may slow down and become unclear. Select a temperature at which your mind and body function best.

Having a good Study Place is important for good studying.

Study skills – Reading Textbooks

A Strategy for Reading Textbooks

SQRW is a four-step strategy for reading and taking notes from chapters in a textbook. Each letter stands for one step in the strategy. Using SQRW will help you to understand what you read and to prepare a written record of what you learned. The written record will be valuable when you have to participate in a class discussion and again when you study for a test. Read to learn what to do for each step in SQRW.

Survey.
Surveying brings to mind what you already know about the topic of a chapter and prepares you for learning more. To survey a chapter, read the title, introduction, headings, and the summary or conclusion. Also, examine all visuals such as pictures, tables, maps, and/or graphs and read the caption that goes with each. By surveying a chapter, you will quickly learn what the chapter is about.

Question.
You need to have questions in your mind as you read. Questions give you a purpose for reading and help you stay focused on the reading assignment. Form questions by changing each chapter heading into a question. Use the words who, what, when, where, why, or how to form questions. For example, for the heading “Uses of Electricity” in a chapter about how science improves lives, you might form the question “What are some uses of electricity?” If a heading is stated as a question, use that question. When a heading contains more than one idea, form a question for each idea. Do not form questions for the Introduction, Summary, or Conclusion.

Read.
Read the information that follows each heading to find the answer to each question you formed. As you do this, you may decide you need to change a question or turn it into several questions to be answered. Stay focused and flexible so you can gather as much information as you need to answer each question.
A Strategy for Reading Textbooks, Pencil

Write.
Write each question and its answer in your notebook. Reread each of your written answers to be sure each answer is legible and contains all the important information needed to answer the question.

As you practice using SQRW, you will find you learn more and have good study notes to use to prepare for class participation and tests.

HINT: Once you complete the Survey step for the entire chapter, complete the Question, Read, and Write steps for the first heading. Then complete the Question, Read, and Write steps for the second heading, and so on for the remaining headings in the chapter.